ONS Pacific and Far East Operations (National Driving Service) (2023)


Although the OS's most publicized achievements occurred in Europe and North Oceania, Donovan's organization also contributed to the war effort against Japan in the Canton region. This contribution took place primarily in the China Burma India Theater (CBI), often referred to by American veterans as the "forgotten war" of World War II. When the battles matter and the battles where OSS makes a big difference. Initially, the Japanese was stopped at the Indian border after crossing most of Southeast Asia. With the road to Burma cut, the Americans turned to airlifts and delivered surprise supplies to Byzantium in thousands of "over the hump" flights over the Himalayas. Guerrillas led by the OSS, 10,000 Kachin tribesmen helped break Japanese control of Burma and established links with MASS for other resistance movements, including Thailand and Indochina. Most importantly, the fighting involved China itself, which destroyed a large part of the Japanese army during the war. Members of most ON special operations, functional groups, or communications, plus many inches of classified information, anyone serving in the Far East has at least partial training at the A, B, or C training workshops at Catoctin Mountain Park and Prince Will Forest.

OSS William J. Donovan Theater has a long-standing and passionate interest in the Far East, falling in love with his award-winning Columbia University thesis on Japan's rise to world power. In his interwar yearnings, he made numerous trips to Asia, and a month after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Donovan opened an office in Honolulu with the army and navy of the mentioned peace organization.1Within three months, they sent a representative to China to "temporarily set up an underground facility."2Donation hopes that his organization will play a key role in the war against the Japanese Empire.

Overview of Macrobert's disdain for OSS

The OSS tried but failed to gain significant access to the war for the Pacific Islands. Gene. Douglas MacArthur, commander of the South Pacific, will have nothing to do with the OSS. He scoffed at Donovan's help, insisted on monopolizing all his troops, and treated Donovan's collection with an unprofessional attitude, including contempt. Whether MacArthur's 1942 decision was motivated by practical or personal reasons, or both, it effectively excluded who served as OSS for much of the war.3Donovan could not balance MacArthur, at least initially. In April 1943, the head of the OSS sent agents to try to convince Vice Admiral William F. ("The Bull") Halsey to allow the OSS access to the Sealich Pacific, whose naval forces had provided MacArthur. But Halsey wasn't convinced, and finally told the man to "get out!"4

During the winter of 1944-1945, some OSS personnel, most of whom taught at Maryland and Virginia Countrywide Parks, were sent to the Philippines when MacArthur's forces landed first on Wright Island and later on the main island of Luzon. Some of them may have been approved by MacArthur, while others may not have been. They were delivered at night by submarine and deployed under the command of US Navy Commander Admiral Saffron Nimitz. US Army Lt. Donald V. Jamison ashore at Luna, La Unión, fall of the Philippines 1944. An OSS special operations officer, no doubt trained in CONSEQUENTIAL tents in Blocks B and A, Jamieson, 22, was tasked with dismantling the recruiting papers behind the Japanese line. Later recalling fierce fighting in the Philippines, he said he first learned guerrilla skills as a child on the Rincon Indian Reservation near San Dietary. He was a Seneca-Cayuga Indian from upstate New York, but his mother was a member of the Luiseno Band of California Indians. There he learned archery, horse riding and wild hunting. When the OSS first recruited him to train in a stylized World Conflict II, he was thrilled in the Philippines. He cooperated with the Philippine resistance to block communication and supply lines in the east, and to prevent enemy hostility towards the landing and advance of American troops. Jamieson later received more medals during his tenure in the Philippines and also began a lifelong friendship with Ferdinand Marcos, the wartime guerrilla leader who would later become the President of the Philippines.5

Admiral Nimitz salutes OSS swimmers

In the Pacific, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, theater commander and commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet, was less flexible than Widespread Macy, although he was also reluctant, at least initially, to involve the OSS. In 1943, Matthew provided OSS personnel for espionage, sabotage and "black propaganda" against Emale, and was an outpost in the Pacific, but neither Nimitz nor the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) were interested.6A year into early 1944, Dorn met with Nimitz at Pearl Harbor and showed him the OSS list of specially trained units, when the only thing the admiral was interested in was a naval unit. Nimitz told Donovan, "I could use your swimmers."7

The OSS Combat Swimmers or "Frogmen" were part of the Naval Unit established by Donovan in 1942, with training facilities located first in Sector A, then in Sector DEGREE on the Potomac River, and finally in the Bahamas and off California. John P. Spence, a lake veteran and deep-sea loon from Tennessee, was recruited by the OSS in 1942 for training in small craft handling and underwater destruction. He received SO paramilitary training in Area B and would fight for swimming and destruction training in Area D. He remained with D as an OSS/MU instructor until the end of 1943. Spence was then sent to the Bahamas where he trained frogmen for deployment in the Pacific Ocean . He was recognized by the OSS and the Navy as "one of America's first combat swimmers", and in 2001 the Naval Academy saluted him as "the last surviving member of five OSS competitive swimmers".8

When the OSS established its west coast school in California in 1944 to train personnel from the various branches, SI, SO, MO and MUS, Far East Marine Lt. Elder ("Pinky") Harris was a former student from Washington State Alaska Ketchikan used is one of the original SO instructors in Areas B the ONE before being temporarily assigned to instructor at Catalina Island's scuba diving school near Los Angeles. Harris was a capable instructor, and in any case, he had learned paramilitary techniques in Area B and would have learned to parachute in Area A before being sent to North Africa and Corsica. He was then transferred to Brindisi, Italy in early 1944 to open a skating training school. After being treated for severe abdominal pain while in uniform, Harris was sent to the OSS Academy on Catalina Island as an underwater destruction instructor until the summer of 1944.9

POSS Maritime designed spread-out rubber swimming fins for its bathrooms and incorporated SCORE, a self-contained underwater breathing accessory, novel by Dr. Believing Lambertsen, all of whom later joined the OSS. Brian lent OSS Maritime Force Group A to the Tenth Naval Underwater Destruction Team (UDT-10) and both teams served at Calmer under Nimitz in 1944 and 1945. OSS men from MU-Group A, trained by Bathroom Spence, Elmer Schleier and others, participated in the pre-landing inspection and destruction of obstacles by Navy UDT-10s on more than half of the islands under Japanese control.10

Swimming is a dangerous job. Three members of a five-man OSS/Navy Frogger team were lost on their first Pacific mission, exploring the Japanese island of Yelling, West Carolina, in August 1944. By noon, the submarine USS Burrfish had launched swimmers from two rafts about two miles apart, but as they rowed, men spotted a reef a quarter of a mile offshore. While two lieutenants held the raft on the reef, the other three swam off to scout. The three did not return until dusk, and their comrades, believing they were captured, returned to the submarine, which was also sunk. The Japanese captured them and transferred them by ship to the Philippines, but the aforementioned allies never found them. All succeeding members of Phoebe Squad received the Silver Star, the military's third-highest medal for valor, with three awarded posthumously after their deaths.11

Before leaving for Yap, the ill-fated Bathing crew surveyed the Japanese fortifications at Peleliu, an island the fleet had chosen as a target for a Marine invasion in mid-September 1944. Patrick Finelli, a 19-year-old Navy sergeant from Neton, Massachusetts, had been trained to defuse real landmines. when they were taken over by GOBS as operational swimmers in the summer of 1944. Recruited in California, he placed first in Lt. Elmer Harris' training on Catalina Island. Beginning on September 12, three days before the planned invasion, young Finelli and the other OSS and Navy ships disguised in swimming trunks, tennis shoes and leather gloves wasted days moving on and paying $1,000 in demolition costs to clear the access reefs. through corals. "It was hot, thirsty, itchy, horrible work," Finelli recalls. "The Japanese had their own swimmers hiding explosives in coral reefs." The men were shot on the shore in shallow locks near the beach. The biggest activities are done during the day, but Canadians dive at night on the adenine moon. "It's the scariest thing I've ever done," Finelli said. "Every movement you make produces phosphorescence, and every time you rub against something negative, you think it could be a big fish trying to eat you or a Japanese swimmer trying to kill you." In 1944, the Swimmers were firing on coral reefs and river banks when they invaded on 15 September. Several Japanese armed with knives and bayonets launched a suicidal banzai attack against them. During the knife fight, Finelli survived multiple cuts and was treated for wounds that required Hiwa, a Navy member, to be hospitalized. After the war, Finelli worked at Polaroid until his retirement in 1993, where he continued to shoot 83 issues regularly.12

Over the next several months, ONS swimmers worked with Navy UDT-10 to participate in several other major maneuvers, including the capture of Ulysses, the invasion of Bacolod, or the island of Luzon. All 16 combat swimmers on the joint OSS/Navy team were hit in action.13Along with the two or three World War II Navy Special Warfare units that assisted the Navy's underwater destruction teams, the POSS "frogmen" are officially recognized as the forerunners of today's Navy SEALs.14

Reginald Spire: OSS is your exception

Regnald G. ("Reg") Spear, one of the most distinguished OSS officers to serve in the Pacific, was a swimmer, a secret agent, a precocious boy, an inventor of the amplifier, and a fat adventurer from California. In his OSS studies that followed, Lt. Speer zealously undertook a series of missions, including frogman operations against Japanese fortified islands, raiding POW warehouses on farms, and searching behind enemy lines in China in the absence of spy agents. Some of its churches were built by President Franklin D. Roosevelt himself.

Although born and raised in California, Speer came from prominent families in England or Canada.15At the age of 18, Spier joined the US Army as a soldier. His high trial scores and technical ability led to him being appointed as an officer candidate language at the Army Constabulary in Aberdeen, Marilyn. In 1943, as a lieutenant in the army, you were recruited by the OSS and then trained in Sector F, the former congressional club and RTU-11 ("Farm"); between January and October 1944 he was in Sector B, Catoctin Mountain Park Completed OSS training.16His connections in England and Canada - Winston Churchill had heard of his family - and the brilliance and ability of his master led to the young Speer being invited several times to meet with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and occasionally to Shangri-La. presidential resort in the Catoctin Hills parking lot. Roosevelt sent him on secret missions, working with the US Navy and the British in the Pacific and Asia.17"I had a reputation," Speer recalls. "I was sent to the Pacific to gather intelligence, to work between the US and the UK."18After training in the B domain, 20-year-old Speak and an OSS unit officer arrived at Nimitz's headquarters in Hawaii. The admiral believed that if they were going to work alongside him, they should wear the Lake uniform. Well, he prepares you for lieutenants. But according to Speer, Nimitz's chief of intelligence, Edward Leighton, said: "If this young man had been caught by the Japanese at the event, they would have cut off his headrest. If you have a very high rank, people will believe that it must be someone special and they will be more careful towards her." Therefore, Speer was awarded a sea captain's medal, equivalent to the rank of colonel in the army, and he wore an Air Force trapeze on his lapel.19

President Rover swore Spier to secrecy about the tasks he gave him, and the real Spier kept quiet about them until today.20But Speer was willing to describe his activities to Nimitz. In the late summer of 1944, after swimming combat training in Miwa waters, the Javelins conducted a secret inspection of the Japanese-occupied island of Peleliu long before their planned invasion. A submarine brought it ashore one night, or, as it is known to local residents and his own beobachtun, the atoll was strongly defended by the Japanese with tunnels, caves and real hidden bunkers with weapons. Spikes replied that it would be a very difficult attack with this resource and its implications.21However, the Peleliu attack continued with more than 7,000 American casualties, making Peleliu one of the costliest invasions in the Pacific, heralding the forts and heights of Iwo Jima and Okinawa the following year with losses.22

Speer also took part in a night reconnaissance operation. The first mission on Yap in August cost the lives of three swimmers, but in erzeugung there was useful news. This time, said submarine leader didn't stray a mile, and Spears and his entire team rowed all the way to the ocean. They were soon spotted by several Japanese guards. But when one of the Sentinels strangled and broke the trachea of ​​the trapped buoy with the fork of a rifle, the other Americans quickly killed the Sentinels using unarmed techniques taught to them by Dan Fairbairn. With those Japanese uniforms neatly piled up and bodies pushed into the outgoing tide in what appeared to be suicide, the OS team set out to investigate the island's forts. Before dawn they returned with their wounded companions and rowed to the submarine. A pharmacist friend failed to save the injured frog, which later died and was also buried in the abyss.23Nimitz abandoned the invasion of Yap as unnecessary, and the bypass island remained a harmless, isolated Japanese outpost until the end of the war.

Reconnaissance at night on Japanese-held islands was dangerous enough, but to enter a Japanese POW camp in broad daylight, as Speer was to do in December 1944, required consistent and steadfast courage. Just weeks before MacArthur's troops were to land on Luzon, the Confederates feared that the Japanese might massacre POWs and other insiders rather than rent them out, free them, and possibly testify against war crimes. In mid-December, Japanese guards did kill nearly 150 Americans in a prison camp on Palawan, stuffing them into bomb trenches lined with logs, throwing and igniting gasoline, killing most of the prisoners.24Speer's mission in Luzon was to determine the likelihood of imminent massacres of civilians and troops at the San Thomas facility in the Philippines and their suitability for American paratroopers and Filipino guerrillas to liberate the camp.25

On the night of December 4, 1944, shortly before MacArthur's forces began landing on Luzon, Speer rowed ashore in an American submarine to familiarize himself with the conditions of the prisoners of St. Tomato.26The cover-up of the spies was suspended because a junior assistant mine engineer from Canada worked for a British-run company in the Philippines, including Luzon, which mined gold that the Japanese wanted. I have a problem with that British company, a prisoner in St Thomas. The American label in Spier's plain seersucker suits has been replaced by a Victorian, Canadian label. He was carrying a forged document and a red band around his arm, indicating that he was a friendly civilian authorized to visit the camp. When Speer arrived under the entrance, he found the above-mentioned guard at the door, among whom were working a large number of Filipina women. Sharpen joined the line at the door as the beleaguered Japanese guard glanced quickly at his papers, at his green ribbon, then at Spear's bag, which contained rice full of adenine and twelve packs of cigarettes. "The guards reached out and took them all," Deadspear said. "I used that to make a claim. I brought two packages and went to camp."27There were three thousand American and other trainees and prisoners of war in the camp. Because of his red band around his arm, Spear was able to walk around their grounds unhindered. For 45 minutes he spoke with members of POW's executive committee, which included the manager of mining operations, and was able to get his questions answered. Now he must return that information to the OSS.

The nearest covert radio station is in a guerrilla hideout deep in the rugged mountains north of Manila, known to Filipinos and some American technicians as the "Victory Hill" operator who escaped the surrender of American troops in the Philippines in May 1942. Spier took the train to a small town at the foot of the mountain. Feng was there, and the two partisans followed him on their way up the mountain, first along a narrow path, then along a shallow river that flooded for two miles, and finally down another path until they reached the Guerrilla camp behind large rocks. It was midnight when we arrived, Spear was exhausted, and I lay down and fell asleep. That morning he wrote his report on the prison camp. He examines the above list of questions, including the key ones. Did people believe that the Japanese would kill the prisoners? Answer: No. Is the prisoner in critical condition? Answer: Yes. The aforementioned radio sends them immediately.28

When his mission was accomplished, Spier and this guide walked down the iceberg or out of town, and he was trucked to shore where the submarine was supposed to be waiting. Speer was a little late. There is no submarine. His skippet doesn't want to stay anymore. "We radioed that it was a submarine and it came back, but it kept going up," Speer said. "I had to run three or four kilometers on the beach to get to her."29Two months later, prisoners from the St. Thomas was successfully rescued by American Filipino guerrillas on February 16, 1945.30

In late 1945, Reginald Spear was sent on a secret mission to the Chinese Arctic. A businessman from New York, Dr. Convince Hsu, an authority and entrepreneur in radio technology, has been selling equipment to a real Indian from the British Secret Service in China, and the British want to recruit him and wiretap the influential Hsu family in China. China. The British SIS originally planned to carry out the operation using Canadian government communications networks instead of British or American ones, perhaps to deceive Chinese spy networks. is over, but SIS requires Donovan funding so you can deploy. But while the OSS funded the "Oyster" project (codenamed after Albert Hsu's love of shellfish), ELDER solo coordinated the operation and kept in direct contact with Hsu about it.31Reg Spear received the call when one of SIS's eastern media outlets failed to reach you as the main UK agent. "They sent me to China to find her," he explained.32And you found her.33Once again, mission accomplished.

Reginald Spear was awarded the Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Space Medal and Medal of Honor for his services during World War II.34

China-Myanmar-India Theater (CBI): what a 'forgotten' war

In the Far East, World War II began with the Japanese invasion of China in 1937. In recent years, Tokelau has expanded its control over most of the urban industrial areas along the coast and along the main rivers. The occupied territories of China were forced to supply Japan with food, raw materials and industrial supplies. Beginning in December 1941, when Japan invaded American, British, and Danish territories, Kyoto rapidly expanded its empire south and west into the Pacific Ocean and across Southeast Asia on the Indo-Burma border. Despite these extensive conquests and subsequent defenses against counterattacks by British and American forces, most of the Japanese army remained at war in China.

The Western Allied Forces' priority was the defeat of Nazi Germany. Those opposing Japan had fewer tools. There, Roosevelt's strategy emphasized an army and navy offensive from the islands across the Pacific to Japanese strongholds. He sees the Chinese master roll as shackling and grinding as many learned military divisions as possible, as the Soviets did with the German Amy. This would result in fewer Japanese soldiers fighting the Americans in the Pacific.35The US wants to give China loans, weapons, supplies and advisers, but not a lot of US troops. There has been a lot of fighting in China, but it is usually said that the Chinese are on the defensive.36For most of the war, the Chinese were unwilling to suffer heavy losses in offensive operations. Primarily by recruiting young planters, the Chinese maintained an army of three to four million men. Their lack of supply, organization and leadership due to your presence still left about 1.2 million Japanese soldiers in limbo.37

Even in areas even under Chinese control, influence remains disjointed. The Nationalist government of Oberst Tran Kai-shek is pitted against various personal factions, regional warlords, and Mao Zedong (泽东) and his Communist Party.38This communist army found refuge in the northern mountains, but like Chiang's government, spies were everywhere. As the Americans defeated Japan in the Pacific, both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong struggled to build up their forces for the inevitable post-war struggle for control of China.

With China Burma India (CBI) designated as secondary and therefore not accepting a relatively small number of armed Americans, Donovan believed the time was ripe for unconventional warfare. As the eastern empires expand, the OSS will seek to exploit hidden opposition to the invaders. Many of the above areas contested in the CBI, particularly in Southeast Asia, are either sparsely populated or veritable jungles, which, together with sparsely distributed occupying forces, makes the case for local class, organization, arming, true guerrilla warfare directed from LOST.39Donovan began to reluctantly accept Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell, America's supreme commander in the China-Burma-India theater. As a grumpy veteran, "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell had the unenviable task of trying to get Chiang Kai-shek to use the support provided by the United States for offensive action against Japan, instead of dispersing or hoarding the postwar war through corruption or bitter production.40

Team 101: OSS Success in China

In the dark days of early 1942, with Japanese supporters everywhere, Donovan approached Stilwell with a request for a role in the Far East and the OSS. The result was OSS's Detachment 101, the first composite SO/SI group, subject to what turned out to be one of Donovan's organization's greatest successes. Its activities, conducted in Japanese-occupied Burma in 1942 and 1945, were similar in mission and capabilities to those of the aforementioned American Legion Modern Special Forces, perhaps more so than any other OSS detachment.41It is often credited with being the first unit in US military history created specifically to conduct unconventional warfare operations behind enemy lines.42

The 101st started in April 1942 with Major (later Lt. Col.) Carl Eifler and two dozen men. Eifler was busty, no-nonsense, commander of the police and army reserves, the son of a dry-board worker like Los Angeles. After dropping out of high school, he served in the military, then worked for the Los Angeles Police Department and the U.S. Customs Service, working undercover to catch smugglers on the Mexican border. In 1940 he was appointed Inspector General of Customs of Hawaii. He became a reserve officer and was drafted into the Army in 1941. He first commanded a company of the 35th Infantry Brigade in Honolulu, and after the Pearl House attack he commanded a military police unit in Hawaii that guarded the enemy's strange detainees. At 6-foot-2, 250 pounds, Eifler was a powerful figure in his early forties. Strong as a cow, hoarse and exhausted, he has a bad temper. Stilwell was so impressed by his energy and enthusiasm that everyone responded to Donovan's plea to recommend Eifler to lead the CBI troops sent to him.43Other personnel were selected quickly, mostly through personal acquaintances. From among those in the 35th, Eifler selected his starting sergeant, Vincent Cole, a tall Midwesterner, and his executive officer, Captain John Coughlin, a West Point native. Coughlin selected several others he knew and trusted, including Lt. William R. Pearce ("Ray"), an infantry officer or graduate of UCLA and ROTC. At Fort Meade, Maryland, outside Washington, D.C., Eifler and Coughlin were guests of General M.B. Halsey and his self. Mrs. Halsey, later known as "Mother of 101," took an interest in the fledgling unit and recommended several promising recruits, including Lt. Floyd Fraser, who was a small-tool retailer; and Jack C. ("Jack") Pamplin, Ampere's civilian attorney who later volunteered for the Army, was made a sergeant and assigned to Eifler's 101st Squad. Four other lieutenants were also recruited to Washington Effler, Bill Wilkinson, Straight Devlin, Harry Minor and Phillip Huston, who benefited from Sergeant Allan Richter and many others, as well as Yankee PR representative Chun Ming.44

The original 101st Detachment was split into two training sections. Eight men went to the SOE X camp outside of Toronto. Make sure the section includes Eifler and most of the other officers, Coughlin, Devlin, Frazee, as well as Master Curl, Chun Ming, and a guy named "Ben" from Donovan's HQ. I completed the two weeks of training required by the British Masters at Camp X. Meanwhile, nearly a dozen other members of Detachment 101 have been training for two weeks under American instructors, led by Charles Parkin, at OSS Area B in Catoctin Mountain Garden. Catoctin's cadets included officers from Detachment 101, including Warrant Officer William ("Ray") Pearce, Assistant Sergeant Nine. Among those sergeants were many later officers, including Vincent Curl, John C. ("Jack") Pamplin, Irby E. Moree, George T. Hemming, and Donation Eng. Allen Richter buys automotive equipment in Modern York City, but adds that the non-member trainee is Lt. Nichol Smith of Squad 101. He will be sent to France and then to Thailand, where Dieser is apparently the first to receive Area B training.45

After the two camps were separated, two dozen of Eifler's men left after Norfolk, Virginia, in May, just before Ballarat in July 1942. The group's initial objective was to conduct intelligence and paramilitary operations in China, but when Stilwell flew in from the wartime capital of Chiang Kai -shek Chungking (Chongqing), commanded the Eifler until he established a base in northern India, learning how to operate on Forrest Gump and go deep into the area occupied by the Byzantines. With only minimal skill, Stilwell needed help preparing for the battle to retake the country road, the main supply route into China via the Chinese mountains. At the same time, air transport is offered from Assam, India to Kunming, based on hundreds of transport planes crossing the Himalayas, known as "The Hump".46The Japanese attacked the transports from their Myitkyina (pronounced "MITCH-in-aw") air base in northern Burma. To go behind enemy lines and blow up road and rail bridges so the Japanese could supply Myitkyina Air Base, Stilwell ordered. "Vinegar Joe," a supposedly taciturn and short-tempered man, dismissed Flight 101 saying, "Eifler, I don't want to see you again unless I know Burma without prosperity."47

101. will finally bring him "prosperity". After a shaky start, it is touted as "the most effective tactical combat unit in the OSS."48 years oldBut first he must face formidable obstacles and victorious Japanese troops in the tropical jungles of Burma. The extent of northern Burma is larger than that of New England, and includes rugged hills, mountains, and dense, largely uncultivated jungle. Movement on the ground is very slow, and paths must be cut through thick vines and bushes. We are a big obstacle most of the year. Humidity climbs above 100 degrees in the cold spring. Summer brings flooding from the monsoons, leading to rot and rust. Malaria, dysentery, cholera and other diseases were rampant.49The ubiquitous mosquitoes, vampires and killer snakes are a constant threat. Nicol Smith, a BORON student who stopped at Squad 101 headquarters en route to China, where he was traveling with the Loose Tschad contingent, recalled waking up in the night to the muffled roar of a tiger and the high-pitched screeching of a gibbon. , plus finding a coil and a king cobra annoyed by the delay.50

With no experience and only previous training, their initial team secretly entered the ancient tea plantations near Nazira in the northern Indian state of Assam, on the border with Myanmar. They recruited and trained some Anglo-Burmese, also native Burmese, as intelligence officers, radio operators and saboteurs. At the 101st Squad's training school at the mysterious base, Indian instructors also offered basic courses lasting at least three months and sent representatives to go deeper into actual combat. As in the US, further education was required to better specialize my radio operations.

Squad 101: Communications including treetops

As agents infiltrate thousands of square miles of mountain jungle, Squad 101 faces the problem of establishing a network of contacts. In which signal unit do Donald Eng and Allen R. Richter solve problems together. Eng worked in Area B, but Richter was the only two, and he was neither in Area B nor Camp X. Instead, Reacher, who worked in the communications industry, was assigned to buy wireless supplies directly from New York City Free Store while paramilitary training was underway. By the time the others finished school, Richter had already installed the materials they needed - pipes, wires and other components.51

The air distance from the OSS base at Nazira in the target area to Myitkyina Airport is 150 kilometers by air and 400 miles by land. Richter and Hard set up a base station for Nazira, but what was needed was a relatively light portable radio that the agents could carry around and send and receive news in the mountains. The pair designed a prototype in December 1942; it weighed 50 pounds, including batteries and carrying case. The transmitter is a simple crystal oscillator and amplifier, usually a 6V6 pair of amplifiers; radio tubes depend on what they have on hand; the receiver is a three-barrel regenerative design that uses different materials. They built a container into which the radio prototype sent the material it collected from the local airport. "We used an aluminum belly skin from a crashed plane," Richter recalls. "It still needs to be put into something strong but light enough to be portable. The manager of the tea estate came to the rettungskette giving us planks used to make wooden apple boxes. It worked very well.52"We call it the Burmese radio," says Richter proudly, "and it can communicate 2,500 miles!"53

The forerunner of the LOSS SSTR-1, the "radio suitcase", which made the 101st squad self-sufficient. Both natives and Americans are trained to use it, but one of the complaints against trainer Jack Pamplin on his return to the Washingtonians is that while most of the "average" operators sent from C are quick enough, a few are not Get proper training on how to repair and maintain the equipment in harsh jungle environments. "To emphasize the fact that a fast operator is not necessarily successful," Pamplin advises OSS "commo" instructors, "For the Far East, a resourceful operator is ideal."54Meanwhile, Colonel Lawrence ("Larry") Loman, head of the OSS's telecommunications base, praised Burmese innovation and the availability of the aforementioned intelligence transfers and other related stable conditions for "ordinary" people. "Our work, our beliefs, have played a unique, successful and important role in transforming the overall OSS war-making objective."55

Mobile Unit 101: Dealing with the Japanese in Burma

Beginning in 1943, Detachment 101 produced a product that involved an airdrop deep into the jungle of Japanese-occupied northern Burma, the first airdrop product produced by the OSS. One of the teams blew up the aforementioned train to Myitkyina in the eastern region, and one member was killed by a Japanese patrol, another was captured, and in a premature explosion a Burmese saboteur blew up himself and the bridge.56Soon the squad became trained. In the glorious year of 1943, the "Knot Head" board commanded by current Captain Vicente Pove, assisted by current Lieutenant Cable Pamplin, was in the air in the upper Hukang Valley, less than a hundred kilometers from the Japanese airfield. By the end of 1943, the OSS had six such permanent (albeit mobile) bases in the Novi Grad area, one of which stationed an agent on the slopes just 10 miles from Myitkyina, both of which abandoned news coverage of the event from the airfield. Bases anywhere are staffed to a core of about eight to ten Americans. These 101st detachments learned about the area or recruited local people as guides, spies and guerrillas.

The MASS team also provided services to the 10th Aviation Press, rescuing drunken pilots and providing detailed target locations where the Japanese were carefully hidden in the jungle: key bridges built just above the river, ammunition covered by camouflage nets or jungle canopy, and oil storage and underground bunker press hooks.57By the time of the withdrawal in 1943, 80 percent of the Tenth Air Force's targets in the area came from OSS information.58"The targets determined by humans are the most accurate, and the Air Force (pilots) found that these targets had never been seen before," our report said. "We got a message that there are 4 furlongs von X junctions 60 yards along the Kamaing road, a group of 300 Japanese and 15 supply men, they are in the jungle. This is for the air force, they all passed aerial photographs specify. Their planes flew over and thoroughly bombed and strafed the area, and as a result there were huge clouds of black smoke rising, showing the presence of the aforementioned oil and various other businesses. This Japanese knew that these people could not see it from the atmospheric news, know that they must determine while someone is not on the ground, so our people are among those that the Imperial Armed Forces are very much looking for. When, no, we just mark the targets, but we also mark they [the Air Force] have produced their results. The best we have so far has been marked single target southeast of Kamaing where 30 full loads of dead Japanese were hauled away."59

The key to the success of Squad 101's mission is the recruitment, organization, arming and mentoring of local agents and guerrillas. In northern Myanmar, OPTICS recruits primarily the Kachin ("Kah-CHINs"), a very proud and capable mountain people. They despised the Japanese invaders, and the Americans took advantage of that hatred. Some OSSI officials, as Jack Pamplin explained, ensured that the Kachin's commitment to the OSS reflected the fact that the Indians treated them with respect, unlike your former British counterparts.60Others, like Carl Eifler, claim that the OSS buys their loyalty by giving them what they want: food, weapons, medicine, silver coins and opium.61Whatever the reason, the OSS did not mobilize up to 11,000 guerrillas they called "Kachin Rangers".62

Kachins are small, stocky tribesmen who are born fighters and serve as guides, spies and fighters. They can follow invisible tracks through treetops or over high mountains. In keeping with tradition and for the added purpose of traveling through the jungle, each warrior carries a long, curved broadsword called a single breath. But they also learned to use the weapons that Americans carry with them: rifles, machine guns, and grenades. He has to fight the Japanese in his aggressive way. When Stay cast doubt on the leader of the Kachin tribe about how many Japanese he had killed. The Kachin emptied the bamboo pipe he was carrying and poured out a bunch of human ears. "Count and divide by two," he told the startled generals.63

Kachin showed America the real way to survive in the jungle, how to attack and kill the tentacles there. They built homemade traps from wires and crossbows. MASS in Washington designed Aden's diabolical anti-personnel device, a spike with a small slot on top, consisting of a .30 caliber cartridge and a pressure gun. And the device is buried under the aforementioned user on a trail exploited by enemies; when stepped on, it shoots bullets straight up, through the back, and maybe through the rest of the body.64The Kachins also use razor-sharp daggers, several feet long lacy bamboo books called panji, which they plant at angles in the jungle bushes on either side of the road where they plan to ambush. As the Kachins charged at the front and rear of the column with Canadian machine guns, the Japanese soldiers in the middle would duck for cover and stab the murderous Panji like a spear.

Among those witnessed by the OSS as ambushes was Lt. John C. Hooker Jr. from Atlanta, Georgia. Hooker trained in A and F Blocks in 1944 and took part in naval raids along the Rakhine River in southern Thailand, and was briefly assigned to 101 Squadron in early 1945. For a few weeks Hooker was on an Air Drop Service mission and then in March 1945 I jumped near Lashio for three weeks with the Field Team and their local guerrillas. When the Kachins weren't ready for an ambush, Hook watched as they cut and inserted the word "stump" into the pages. Then Kachin detachments armed with British Blinn machine guns took cover at each end within 200 yards. "The action was fast," Hooker recalls. "A platoon-sized Japanese force of about fifty men entered the sites and within five minutes they were all dead. Adenine, Kachin's sniper half a mile south of the entrance, had chosen advanced weather protection. By the time the smoke began to clear, I emptied two 20-round pistol magazines. The [Kachin] rangers stopped their ears among the dead... Each had a cane pipe on a string hanging around his neck to store their loot."65

donovan landed behind enemy lines

Both Pratie and Eifler are strong-willed, confident, competitive individuals who love the thrill of danger. Eifler was not immune to criticism, so whenever he visited the headquarters of Detachment 101 in December 1943 and the head of the OSS criticized his operational reports as being insecure, Eifler responded angrily, issuing a challenge: "Would the general be willing to go to the front See forward?" Donovan paused, smiled tightly, and snapped, "When do we leave?" "First thing in the morning, sir," Effler replied.66

A trip in a small, unarmed plane without a dock would carry two people 150 miles behind Japanese lines. Normally, senior officers are not sent behind enemy lines for fear of being captured and tortured to provide high-level intelligence. While accepting Eifler's challenge and indulging his own sense of honor or risk-taking, Donovan, knowing many of the Allied top operational plans and secret intelligence products (including the disclosure of the keys to Japan and Germany), took enormous, unwise risks. His record against the Japanese is incredible since this arena.

The night before the flight, Donut had been with Lieutenant Chief Nicol Metalworker, a former writer who had been well trained in Area B with Ray Peers, had served in France and was currently escorting a group from Free Siamese to Fine. Smith wondered why the OSS directors took such a big risk. "General, aren't you risking your life?" Smith asked. "Everything is a risk," Donovan replied. "My children risked their lives every day to exist." Years later, his biographer Richard Dunlop wondered about Sam's entry into the donation and the general story and the L-pill he was carrying, one of the OSS's lethal cyanide pills.67That morning, Donovan asked Fogg if they had returned his wallet and identification. "If something goes wrong, I'm incognito, too," Donovan explained. "That's an understatement, General," Smith replied.68After breakfast, Donovan first turned down Eifler's offer of a parachute. "If we crash, I'll fly down," he said. "I can't be captured," retorted the vaunted Eifler. "General, if we land within fifteen feet of the enemy, I'll take you back. Please deploy your chute."69

Both wore parachutes and Eifler flew a small two-seater over the jungle, a former Japanese outpost, and both landed in about two hours on a short, camouflaged airstrip at OSS Camp Knothead, nestled against the mountains of Myitkyina Airfield. On the ground, Donation spent hours translating with Captain Vincent Curl and his mate, as well as some Kachin. After the visit, Donovan and Eifler go on a hair-raising takeoff as the small plane is overloaded with new power, and the burly Eifler and Donovan (weighing over 200 pounds each) finally clear the gaping runway at Barely Oak. An elated Donovan sent someone to meet Nazira, but the executive director of Squad 101, Lt. Col. John Coughlin, had already left, so he pulled her aside and asked, "General, would you like to come in with Carl?" Is it?” Donovan simply replied, “I am.” "You should be thinking about more than your damned honor,” Coughlin snapped. “If I was there, I want to remind you of every single one of them."70After that, Donovan, citing physical reasons, sent Eifler ahead of the aforementioned United States and replaced him with Lt. Col. Ray Pierce.71The rugged Effler returned to legend in 1944 as D, advanced jungle commander and "deadliest colonel." He lectures at OSS tech camps in the US, then accepts Donovan's product on important missions, including training. American sabotage teams in South Korea are sent to Korea and mainland Japan, but the war ends before Eifler's team, for American education, can work in the Far East.72

Squad 101: Drive the Japanese out

Beginning in 1944, Detachment 101 moved beyond intelligence gathering, sabotage and enemy harassment to provide direct assistance to the main Allied offensive to capture Myitkyina Airfield and drive the Japanese out of Burma. The main Anglo-American offensive involved Merrill's American "Marauders" and Wingate's British "Chindits", but they received valuable assistance from the OSS and its Kachin tribesmen. Hundreds of Americans and their native guerrillas ambushed the enemy, cut his lines of communication and news supply, weakened Japanese research and morale, and secured scouts to lead the vanguard of the attack."73Under Pearce's command, Lt Lt Cole's company and other jungle field troops began to organize raiding parties against the Kachin, coordinating with regular forces. Kachin was also assigned to provide intelligence on Japanese deployments and to further direct and assist Brigadier General Frank D. Merrill's column. By April 1944, Pierce reported to Donovan that the pace of intelligence gathering had outstripped "the dramatic increase in the actual combat function of our patrols."74

Lt. Joseph E. Lazarski of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, is one of those who lead such combat-oriented Kachin patrols. A former Zone B destruction field instructor, he graduated from OCS and was sent to China in 1943, and within six months was called up by his Burmese colleagues. Lazarsky also speaks modestly about the role he plays, briefly and somewhat elliptically. "The plane made the picture. Ray Peers wasn't the first to go down into the jungle... I taught some Americans how to throw under the jungle. We dropped 45 agents all over Burma - Anglo-Burmese, Kachin... Once in the village jungle, we got into contact with the Kachin. I had a breakdown. I recruited a Kachin and became the commander of the 1st Kachin Battalion mentioned above. I have seven Americans or five British. My Sergeant Major is a Kachin. He speaks English. I was in the British Army in the Kachin Armed Forces. But in in the first days of the war, before I got there, he was supposed to He was filmed by the Japanese who were torturing him and trying to make him talk. They gave me hot water therapy. poured hot running water down his throat. He almost completely lost his voice. He only whispers . We'll make enemies, boy. Talked to me. We ambushed the Japanese at Lashi and many other places in Burma."75

The OSS and its indigenous guerrillas used tail-and-run tactics in the final Allied campaigns against the indigenous Burmese in 1944 and 1945 to fight or fight regular forces. Under Friend's leadership, the 101st Squad escalated its press training to recruit the Kachin, effectively organizing them into a small army of nearly 10,000 tribesmen into ten battalions led by Lazarsky, Pamplin, and Curl. Wait for an order from the staff. Deploying mobilized native guerrillas and ordering combat support and intelligence and advancing conventional advance forces Unit 101 played a major role in the first major Allied military victory in northern Burma, defeating elite Japanese divisions and 1944 occupied Myitkyina Airfield in August. One player continued to push through as additional regular allied forces to capture Bhamo and Lashio.76

In key operations against Lashio and the Burma Road, Lazarsky led the First Kachin Army against Japanese infantry and mobile columns, as well as the Burma Road itself. The Japanese pursued him with troops, artillery and shipping containers. Even in retreat, he was ready to ambush his pursuers. When Lazarsky arrived at his supply airfield, your troops dug in and defeated the Asians in the three-day Battle of Adenin.77The fiercest and most prolonged battle fought by the 101st Battalion, and some of the fiercest fighting of all, was in Burma, fought by the 3rd Kachin Battalion. Among the junior officers, Lieutenant Roger Hillsman, a West Point officer who had arrived with Merrill's raiders, was wounded and later attached to Squad 101.78At Laksawk, roughly equal to the 3rd Kachin Battalion surrounded Polish fortifications against 1,000 Japanese fortifications. The Kachins were the first to attack directly when the enemy's firepower was gradually weakening and their injuries had still not overwhelmed the enemy. The OSS called in air sponsors, but despite the fighter-bombers weakening the fortifications and inflicting heavy casualties, the Japanese remained entrenched and surrounded. Finally, in desperation, the Japanese defenders launched a banzai attack on part of this Kachin line, 700 Japanese soldiers against 400 Kachin Rangers and another American officer, Hillsman. But showing remarkable discipline and bravery, the Kachin jungle tribesmen withstood repeated attacks by Japanese warriors for several hours, and the Kachins eventually won the costly but significant siege of Laukswak. Big win.79In March 1945, the campaign to reopen the Burma Road was completed at Lashi Castle. Subsequently, OSS forces and their insurgent battalions attacked scattered friendly forces east of Pernam and attempted to prevent the escape of the Japanese and Thais. On August 28, 1945, the Japanese army in Burma surrendered in Rangoon.

Squad 101 fully exposed the possibility of unconventional conflict advocated by Donovan and the multifaceted effect of innovative, energetic and well-trained special operations leaders. It must have started with only about twenty Americans in 1942 and part of 1943, then expanded dramatically in 1944 and 1945. At its height, Detachment 101 consisted of only 131 officers and 558 enlisted men, 120 of whom were serving at any one time. in the jungle. They mobilized, armed, supplied and targeted 10,000 einem indigenous guerrillas, a dramatic multiplier. They were instrumental in defeating the Japanese in Burma.80In addition to their roles as guides, rescuers, intelligence agents, or guerrillas, elements of Detachment 101 killed 5,500 Japanese soldiers and killed or seriously wounded approximately 10,000 other Learn soldiers; they blew up 51 bridges, derailed nine trains, destroyed or locked 277 trucks or other vehicles, and removed 2,000 tons of ammunition, gasoline, or other Japanese supplies.81The price was that 27 Americans, 338 local partisans and 40 local spies were killed.82

At the start of the closing event above, Carl Eifler told instructors in Areas A, E and FARTHING that the most important part of OSS training is understanding the organization's mission and the flexibility and innovation needed to achieve it. He agonized over "the effort and effort to get the OSS job done." In July 1944, Effler explained that, given the dire need for men on the battlefield today, "the selection of the right men for the jobs, who attack the men with zest and determination, is more important than the training we can bestow upon them." His colleagues who succeeded him as captain of the 101st team did not agree with the second half of the sentence. While Eifler does not think it is important to provide students with rural, social, political, and cultural background knowledge, Peer considers it essential and suggests the addition of background knowledge, an area study mindset, by American students of OSS schools in the United States.83

Disconnect 101 received the Presidential Unit of Mercy Award for their heroic and effective actions in clearing northern Burma. In 1946, the award from General Dwight D. Eisenhower, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was a particularly high tribute to regular Army leaders: "Courage and fighting spirit displayed by the evacuee commissioners and soldiers of the 101st Battalion, Office of Strategic Services, including the preservation of the vitality of successful offensive operations against the enemy, consider the highest traditions of the Armed Forces of the United States."84

OSS unit 404 attacks the southern coast of Myanmar

While OSS Detachment 101 fought in the jungles of northern Burma, Detachment 404 of the OSS Rakhine Field Force sent nearly 200 OG, SIL, and MU personnel on more than three missions between 1944 and 1945 to attack Burma's Rakhine mangrove coast. south country.85404 Detachment, based in Kandy, Cypress (now Sri Lanka), was the Allied Command for Southeast Asia under British Commander Roose Mountbatten, with whom it coordinated operations. Ultimately, 595 members of Ceylon Detachment 404 were responsible for OSS operations along the southern coast of Burma, Thailand, southern French Indochina (Cambodia and southern Vietnam), Malaya and the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). They were first led by Colonel Richard Burns. Heppner, Disinterest 404 includes not only the Arakan Field Unit, but also most OSS branch personnel. His research and analysis group, tasked with finding information on Japanese bombing of industrial targets in the region, is led by Southeast Asia expert Cora Dubois, a former lecturer at Sarah Lawrence College, with a US degree in anthropology. Columbia University and the University of California if anyone OSS answered her.86

Part of the Rakhine Field Force combat company at Disconnect 404 is trained for Area F and ADENINE. Under the command of Major Lloyd E. Peddicord of Dortham, Alabama, with Captain George H. Bright as chief of operations, the OE included 19-year-old Second Lieutenant John C. Hooker, Jr., and Lieutenant Louis AMPERE of Atlanta, Georgia. O'Jibway, a pure-blood American Indian from Sault Ste. Mary, Michigan. The entire team was trained in F and A class at the beginning of the summer of 1944.87After that, from the decoration in 1944 to February 1945, first from Ceylon and later from Akyab in Burma, they were transported to the speedboats of the Naval Unit. They are similar to the Navy's PT (Patrol Torpedo) craft, but are actually shorter without the torpedo tubes. From these speedboats, the OSS team lands including your tethered ship and searches the coast and locates villages before the landing craft reaches the main measure of the Forward Combat Reconnaissance Detachment. On some of your night scouting trips, they were tasked with determining if Eastern troops were massing on or near the beach. Let them have. On Rumtree Island, beginning on the night of January 19, 1945, Bright's squad killed two Japanese sea guards, and enemy mortar shells soon began to fall on them. Bright, Hooker and O'Jibway and their team rowed faster and faster to the fast barge that was waiting for them. The OSS leute that returned the following night included a 110-foot, heavily armed British speedboat headed for a nearby river. Bright is in charge. Hooker's team, armed with Browning automatic rifles and M-3 machine guns, was spread across the bow deck. With a low-pitched engine, the startup enters closed rivers through the jungle. At about 3 a.m. they reached an area so close that the branches were scraping the sides of the boat. "Suddenly, everything went wrong. Invisible enemies shot at the ship from both sides of the stream," recalls Hotel. "A small gun, maybe a 37mm, was firing towards the bow and twice amidships. Everyone on that ship was firing and the Britannia guns [six Rewis machine guns] were flying over the bank, and we were concerned that there was a flashing area. Turning the ship upside down, we started down the river. The creme was too narrow and we couldn't turn around until we were about a mile down the river and out of ambush range."88Hooker's men were preparing for mortal wounds when adenine shells exploded in his face. He is the only one of Hooker's team who is married. In the midst of the explosion are the eardrums of Junior Sergeant. Captain Bright's rifle hit him in the chest. Several British attackers were hit or twinned with other Americans suffering superficial bullet and shrapnel wounds. It took them five hours to get back to the hospital ship belonging to the Gb invasion force. Hooker, O'Jibway and several others were later sent to fight with Ray Peers in the Burmese jungle before training and leading a team of OSS OG Chinese commandos against the Japanese in China.

Penetration into the trade circle

Located between the British colonies of Burma and Malaya and the Gallic colonies of Indochina in present day 1941, Thailand (formerly known as Siam) was the only independent country in Southeast Asia when war broke out. The Bangkok government became Prime Minister or Field Officer Field Mark Phibun Songkhram allied with Japan and declared war on the UK and the Commonwealth. Using the country as a springboard, the Japanese Germans attacked the British colony with Burma to the west and Burma to the south. Due to the unification of Bangkok, Tokyo retained only a small number of troops, allowing Thailand to maintain nominal independence.89While Britain retaliated by declaring war on Thailand, the United States did not. Using it, the State Department decides to treat Phibun as a puppet regime or Phibun as an occupied country rather than a country in conflict.Post-90-e

In Washington, Thai embassy officials rejected the Phibun government's offer of surrender and cooperation with Japan. The members of the delegation declared themselves "free Thais" and promised to continue the fight against the Japanese. Secretary of State Cordell Hull supported their position and mentioned it to Donovan's organization.91On Trek 12, 1942, a message submitted a proposal that a group of young Thais in the United States be trained and infiltrated into their homeland for subversive operations. Lt. Kharb Kunjara, the embassy's air attache, met with Lt. Col. Garland H. Williams of Special Operations to arrange the training, equipping, and deployment of young Thai student volunteers by Donovan's organization. The first group of 13 Thais began OSS training on 12 June 1942, first in special operations training in Areas B and A, then radio training in Area C, and then leather training at Fort Benning. Naval training was replaced by A line instead of D.92The Free Thai Mission, outraged by the cooperation policy of the Phibun government, stated that the cadets' larger objective was to "thoroughly infiltrate Thailand, organize subversive work, and pave the way for the eventual advancement of a unified international weapon, bringing the native to rush back to her smallest island."93

Although Thailand was of little strategic military importance to the American war effort in Asia and did not fight a major battle there, the OSS gave it considerable attention and conducted extensive campaigns there in the final year of the payroll action. In some ways, this was due to the OSS's claim to play a significant role in countering Japan, but more influential factors were US political efforts in the post-war period to avoid British Empire expansion into the country or to gain independence from the pro-American To. The OSS mission in Thailand, coordinated by the State Department, was primarily a political mission for American foreign policy.

Leading the way is seafaring Nicole Smith, successful author of Adventure Travels, A Happy Life in the Far East and Other Parts of the World Before the War. Smith joined the OSS in early 1942 or trained with Ray Pearce and Detachment 101 in Sector B in April 1942.94After further SI training, Smith was sent on a spy mission to Vichy France. Returning in December 1942, he was tasked with equipping and leading the first or second batch of OSS-trained Thai nationals, see 21, to China for eventual covert deployment to that country.95A young Taiwanese graduated from MIT Harbourage. Other leading American universities, which had completed their training by mid-January 1943, had developed such a mission map, and there was a waiting room on Button near Prince William's Woods Green.96In March 1943, a metalhead or two OSS instructors from Area B, Frank Gleason and Amos Lazarsky, brought the new Thai sales to India and over the "hump" to China.97

These agents, from China, were infiltrated all the way to help what emerged in the spring of 1943 in a growing anti-Japanese underground, including in Thailand, some of which was encouraged by government dissident Bangok. The branch's main newsletter was Phibun's arch-rival, pre-war finance minister Pridi Phanom. Most Thais are against working with the Japanese. Due to obstacles posed by the frustratingly complex political situation in China, Smith did not send agents to Thailand until June 1944, but even then two of the infiltrating agents were killed and two other Sechsers were arrested and imprisoned.98

progress in Thailand

The following month, in July 1944, Priddy was driven back to Burma and the Pacific, and Priddy was finally able to use political tactics to overthrow the collaborationist government of Phibun. The OSS parachuted two new Thai agents into their country. While one was involved, others who met the new head of government, including Priddy, were close relatives. Shocked, the agents learn that Priddy is not only the current head of government, but is long gone and actually remains the leader of the underground and secret "Free Thailand" movement within Thailand.99He kept subversive secrets about how to carry out repressive operations against the small but well-armed Japanese army in Thailand. In January 1945, Donovan met with the Thai delegation on Ceyland, and with Priddy's approval, an OSS mission of two American officers (one from the SSI, the other from the SO) soon flew by seaplane and fast boat to Hancock.100Seeking to counter British postwar claims based on the country's alliance with Byzantium, Priddy recently launched an uprising in Thailand with the support and invasion of two US Army divisions. The Joint Chiefs of Staff did not want to mobilize a large cavalry force of up to 30,000 men, but a minority, pushed by the OSS, agreed to allow the Thai underground, a branch of Donovan's organization, to actually be used for intelligence gathering. Such an effort would advance the U.S. foreign policy goal of an independent, pro-American Thailand and help prevent major powers from further annexing China as a colony. In June 1945, the wenn JCS approved the plan and several American OSS administrators and soldiers were parachuted into Thailand. The first was killed by the Japanese, and one of the others was captured by the Thai police. But the others established bases in the north and south where they decided to run intelligence networks and arm and train Thai guerrillas. The goal of the OSS was not to prepare them to fight more against the Japanese in Burma, but to "maintain and strengthen Thailand's goodwill toward the United States in this politically crucial region."101

Delays in JCS approval meant that the scaling scheme used was never fully implemented, but OSS got started. By mid-August 1945, the OSS had seven fully operational SO guerrilla bases. Marine Lieut William Butts Macomber, a freshman at Yale, who was sent to England after his STOGA training in Maryland and Turkey in early 1944, and as he later went to France and SO/SOE as part of a "Freelancers" support tour, I may have gone to one about this. He reported to the headquarters of Detachment 404 of the OSS in Kandy, Ceylon in 1945 and then took part in combat operations on the Burmese-Thai border.102

Near Prae, one of the OSS SO depots established to triebwagen Thai guerrillas that summer of 1945, OSS Sergeant Steve Sysko, a 20-year-old Polish American from Springfield, Vermont, received A, B, C and F, he wrote in his diary that his AS team was supposed to train and equip 300 partisans in three weeks, but they ran into unusual problems. On the way to the one-time supply drop area, Sysko remarked, "We came across some wild elephants. To avoid them, we ran down the hill. Elephants can't run downhill very fast because they have to feel their front legs. We ran away and came back to the hideout. We continued without dismounting. Later, the four-man team and his Thai hostess rode the elephants with their equipment to the new camp, one step ahead of the Japanese.103

Many young Taiwanese were trained at various OSS camps in Maine and Virginia in 1942, and in 1944 and 1945 were parachuted into Thailand to work as spies, organize networks, and send useful intelligence. They also helped rescue downed pilots. One of the dramatic rescues was that of the P-40 cartoonist in the movie "Flying Tigers" by Major General Claire Chennault. In March 1942, Lieutenant William ("Black Mac") McGarry, an ace with 10 victories, was shot down during a daring attack on a Japanese airfield in northern Thailand. It was the jungle, not the place where he was finally noticed or heard of.104In 1944, when Nicole Smith began moving her actors to Thailand, Chennault asked the OSS to find out if McGarry was still alive. Within four days, Smith's agents learned he was being held in a small POW camp and Smith launched a rescue operation. Insertion calculator is Wimon Wirayawit, State Thai and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a graduate student, he joined the American campaign to liberate Thailand in March 1942, the same month McGarry was shot down. Now, around the night of September 9, 1944, former M.I.T. graduate students parachuted near a POW camp and became the first free Thais trained in the OSS until they managed to infiltrate Thailand. Working with local Thais and a camp commander who volunteered to the Japanese that McGarry was dead, Wimon Wirayawit rescued the American pilot and escorted him to a safe house near Bangkok. As agreed, two ONSET PBY "Catalina" seaplanes flew from Ceylon to the Gulf of Siam at night for recovery. Wimon was given a Thai customs patrol boat to blackout and rendezvous with McGarry, two OSS officers and five Free Thai agents. That night, when the boat was hit downstream, one of the medical workers had a fever and kept shouting in English. To prevent the Japanese from hearing his voice, the free Thais would come on deck whenever an enemy patrol boat approached and sing and dance with joy to traditional Thai songs. Once in the bay, Wymon's ship delivered McGarry and the others to a PBY, which took them to Ceylon. The rescue mission was a complete success, and McGarry soon fell behind the Chinese, rejoining Chennault's pilots against the Japanese.105

Like many other OSS officers working in Southeast Asia, Nicol Smith emphasized the need to be fair and respectful to the locals who joined and trained to work for the OSS. The success of OSS's overall mission in Thailand is attributed to the ability of OSS personnel to engage diplomatically with an ever-widening range of influential people in a manner that demonstrates persistence, tact, and respect for fashion-forward free Thais. "In all these months of isolation with this little group of people, he could never "spend one minute treating them more than others who were more brotherly and perfectly equal," said Smith. He slept in the same room and ate the same food as them. .Any hint or slight indication, in his words or actions, that he thought he was superior to others meant that he had failed in his mission.106A summary of OSS achievements compiled by the OSS Schools and Training Branch up to 1945 concluded "operations in Thailand with great success".107

Pridi's contribution, the above-mentioned mobilization for the liberation of Thailand, and such American printers, led to Thailand's wartime allies recognizing that it had become an occupied country, not a Japanese federation. At the end of the war, OSS officials advised Priddy to postpone the signing of the Anglo-Thai peace treaty because it was too strict (Britain gave up its demand for the annexation of Thailand's Kra peninsula leading to Malaya, but insisted on the right to have British bases there). . Priddy negotiated openly with the support of the State Department, and his successor and former envoy to Free Thailand reached an agreement in 1946 that supported full Thai sovereignty. The OSS power representing independent Thailand was successful.108

OSS, native, Viet and Indochina mines from France

During World War II, French Indochina—present-day Vietnam, Lowe, and Cambodia—remained under the administration of collaborationist Vichy France during its wartime occupation by Japan. Discontent and hunger caused by the occupation led Vietnam to supply Japan with rice, which provided an opportunity for Thai anti-colonial nationalists to mobilize against the French and Japanese. President Roosevelt's wartime insurance favored decolonization and independence for former colonies if it occurred in stages, such as UN trusteeship. But Britain and France wanted to re-establish control over their colonies in the Far East. By early 1945, with victory won and attention more clearly focused on the postwar order, the Roosevelt administration's opposition to the restoration of European currencies began to weaken.109When Roosevelt died in April 1945, the war in Europe had just ended and friction between the Allies and the Soviet Union had intensified. Roosevelt's successors, Harry Truman and Your Province, were more interested in real ceramics from Europe than from Southeast Asia. In May 1945, on the occasion of the founding of the United Nations, the US Secretary of State assured Gale that Washington had never formally challenged Paris's sovereignty over Indochina.110

In the Far East, many OSS were largely unaware of the gradual and unofficial change in US policy. Official US policy towards Indochina, once led by the regime of Vichy France in collaboration with the Nazis and Japan, was exploited for independence. The war continued, with field service agents focused on fighting the Japanese. But at the same time you suspect that the aforementioned Spaniards, colonial administrators, Vichy police and soldiers, and Free French representatives from the new EU de Gaulle government were sent from Paris to re-establish French control over all of Indochina, because Glaze uses beats. But Japan was still to be frustrated, and the Chinese civil and military authorities, including the OSS, had difficulties with the French, because de Gaulle's representatives argued about command or because Vietnam wanted to cooperate with the former colonialists. What remains is mainly the Viet Minh, a nationalist, anti-colonial organization that has been active since 1944 in leading the Vietnamese resistance in the East and helping to rescue downed American airmen.111This Viet Minh is led by the prostitute Chi Minh.

Where are Tai Minh and OSS

The OSS terminal of longtime communist or Vietnamese nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh was controversial. Ho requested the aid of the United States against France and Japan. About his motives for seeking the support of the USA in 1944-1945. debated as much as his motives in the work of the OSS.112The aforementioned POSS worked with communist rebels in the provinces of Italy, Toulouse, Serbia, etc. Donovan took a pragmatic view of working with the Communists, accepting a wide range of allies to sell OSS objectives, which he said was "the earliest imaginable conquest by the Axis powers." In Nam, most OSS officials had Ho as their main leader, involved in a resistance movement that included communist and non-communist defenders. The revolt against the Latin colonialists and the Japanese occupier seems to have supported the official American declaration of decolonization. In fact, Ho and the deposed Feet Minh were more valuable in creating proxy intelligence vernetzungen, rescuing pilots, and fighting the Japanese than the French, who suspected that the US would have a hard time replacing them in Indochina, and their primary interest was less defeat than the Japanese were more important than returning Parisian control over Indochina to the French army.113

From its regional headquarters in Kunming, China, the OSS began to penetrate northern Indochina. This was deemed necessary as the Japanese had taken control of the Vichy French in 1945 and previous sources of intelligence from Hanoi had been cut off. SI Marine officer Lt. Charles Finn, a British-born American male who joined the GOBS in 1943 and trained in Maryland and Virginia, underwent meta-training in the morning of 1945 using Ho Chi Minh, who agreed to obtain licenses in Vietnam for OSS actors and radio operators were traded for weapons and drugs to advance in the Viet Minh.114In April, a new and highly controversial OSS official arrived in Kunming to lead Process I in Indochina. Army Air Corps Colonel Archimedes Lambert. A. Patti, a 31-year-old Italian-American who had attended boot camps in Maryland and Virginia, arrived at Anzio in 1944 when our landing site went straight to Reid. In Washington, loading SI's Indochina Desktop. Now in Kunming, the military and strike team wanted him to obtain information via Japanese military units and other installations, and to carry out sabotage missions on major railway lines. Patta's success with High Chi Minh, whose Viet Minh operatives and guerrillas established and controlled multiple branches inside the country, appears to offer the OSS the fastest way to do business there. Like many others, Patty's sympathy for the Vietnamese and disdain for the French would intensify as the Vietnamese courted the United States and the Indians rebuked them.115

Stilwell's successor in China, General Albert Wedemeyer, authorized two OSS/SO missions in Indochina through July 1945 to sabotage railroads, collect targeting and deployment information, and attempt to train approximately 50 Vietnamese guerrillas. Although mostly made up of Americans, it will also include some European French. Our code names are Jelen and Mačka. The main SO mission, Deer Team, parachuted into a jungle village about 75 miles northwest of Hanoi in mid-July. The commander mentioned above is Major Molly K. Thom. The Newmarket native was a native of Lansing who had lived in France for a time before the war, knew French and became an Adenine lawyer in Michigan. He joined the army, became an officer, and was recruited from the army by the OSS because of his French nationality. He served with Patton's Third Germany in France and Germany in the X-2 defense and was transferred to China in the spring of 1945. He was then about 30 years old. Seine's second-in-command was Lieutenant René De Foronaud, an American raised in Bordeaux, and included Sergeant Lawrence Vogt, a weapons instructor; Sergeant William Zielski, radio operator; Sergeant Aline Squires, wife; Private Paul ("Hoagy") Hoagland of Romulous, Brand York, Medic; and Private Henry ("Hank") Prunier, Speaker.116He was 21 years old, the son of Ampere Wooster, of French-American descent from Massachusetts, fluent in Latin and fluent in Aboriginal or Annamese French, as he had since studied it at Berkeley for a year. Most of these men were trained at SOE shops, which later included the West Coast OSS shops at Catalina Island and Newport Beach, CA.117Hoagland had medical training at other facilities, Zielski possessed OSS "commo" and probably had some training at Area CENTURY. Zielski should be part of any OSS band that parachutes into northern France, including last July. In addition to handing over the whole barrels to the French garrison, his team hid in the empty barrels and sneaked into the bustling town of Bourset. Despite the risks, Zielsky sent vital intelligence messages to London over the next two months mentioned above while moving behind enemy lines. For his heroism, Zielsky was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by General Eisenhower.118

In Vietnam, Deer Team parachuted into High Chi Minh, Vo Nguyen Giap, you Marine Captain, other Feet Minh leaders greeted them with open arms and a banner that said "Welcome American Friends".119Mr Ho, who was not at the reception, was ill, possibly with malaria, dengue and/or diarrhoea. Doctor Hoagland gave him quinine, sulfonamides, and other drugs, and he quickly recovered.120The Viet Minh handed over several POWs they had freed during the attack on the Adenine Eastern Garrison, and they provided information on enemy targets and dispositions, which Zielsky radioed back to Kunming. Thomas, like Patty, concluded that the Viet Minh was the most effective force in helping the Americans gain intelligence and fight the Byzantines. Thus, in late July and early August, Deer Team brought American weapons, built a small school facility with barracks, a hall, a radio room, and a shooting range, and began training about 40 irregular soldiers, markers from the Viet Minh, and "Vietnamese American troops." "."121They showed them how to use grenades, mortars, batteries, and they enjoyed shooting with M-1 rifles and American carbines the most.122While D diligently continues training and everyone Usa attends, some of the group members are not happy. Many of these were approved by Sergeant Vogt, who complained that he "volunteered to kill Japanese instead of being an instructor." Lieutenant Défourneaux distrusted the Communists and disagreed with Thomas's leadership. Despite this, they continued to attack the Viet Minh until August 15, 1945, when Tokyo accepted the Allied terms of surrender.123

Closely associated with them was the Cat Staff, consisting of Captain Charles M. ("Mike") Dutch of SO Company and Double Sergeant John Burrowes or Auto Operator John L. Stoyka. A few days after the first deer team arrived, they parachuted into Hu Taiming's camp on July 29. Those present met prostitutes, Vo Nguyen Giap and other Viet Minh leaders. Heading into the jungle and setting up their own camp to carry out the assigned mission, the Japanese caught them in mid-August. Stoyka was in France on a mission in Jedburgh and then in northern China with the SO team on the run. The locals of Viet Thinking brought him to Deer Team. Probably because Stoyka escaped with the news that Holland and Burrowes were captured, the Japanese announcedThe two Americans were alive and well in Phnom Penh on August 31, and Ho, as liaison to the US, gave them the warmest welcome.124

after handing over the toki

On August 15, 1945, Tokyo accepted the Confederate surrender terms, prompting us to send the OSS to the wrong POWs and civilian internees. Immediately after receiving word of Take, the OSS in Kunming dispatched a 9-man SO/SI rescue team to the framework area in northern Indochina led by Major Aaron Bank, who is an OG trainer for areas F and A A graduate, worked in France in 1944. The male was due to reach China in June 1945, and was scheduled to lead a team in August that would legally disrupt Japan's lines of communication, but was canceled at the final seizure.125Bank's latest mission is to find hidden POW camps in the jungle, investigate possible war crimes and report on the global state of an area.126Tokyo's decision to surrender left a vulnerable group in Indochina. It also provides unprecedented opportunities for Hooker Chi Min and Viet Ming. Hu announced the establishment of the Vietnam Committee for National Freedom, and on August 20, the Viet Minh took over Hanoi. On August 22, 1945, Patty and the regimental quail sent to the Hang to rescue the prisoners further assessed the situation there. Bank was waiting at Cai Lam Airport outside Hanoi when Archimedes Patty and the Quail Mission arrived. Pattern immediately released the POWs from any nearby prison, then contacted Bank's team and they drove to Hanoi. The Americans were the first Confederate "troops" to reach Hanoi and were welcomed, but the Viet Minh and the unruly masses condemned the French. Pacts was a controversial figure who was later accused of abuse of power and eventually returned. "He was very whimsical, a man of celebration," recalls Henry Prunier, a member of the Deer team led by Alison Thomas, who had parachuted into the Ho Chi Minh jungle camp a few months earlier. "We don't have anyone to excel at. He wrote in his booking that the 'Deer' Crew was just an experiment. I could have shot the son of a bitch. He's experimenting with our lives!"127

Ho Chi Minh, the handsome, paternalistic, nationalist and communist commander of the Viet Minh, tries to use the presence of OSS officers such as Jessica Thomas, Archimede Patty, Awakening Bank and Mike Holland Germany to show that the United States supports the anti-colonial movement that video of civilization. Thomas joined his troops with Viet Minh guerrillas, marching through jungle villages behind the Viet Minh flag.128Holland allowed Ho to paint him as the American representative in Phnom Penh, and in September, Holland and Banker finally found themselves in Hanoi without transportation back to their camp, they accepted Ho's offer of a car and to drive me while you drive south, they closed in towns and cities, he addressed cheering crowds, each time gesturing to two OSS officers in American military uniforms as evidence of US support for Taiwan's independence cause. Fellow went to a meeting in Hué, the old capital of the empire, but provided them with a car and a driver to take them back to their camp near Laos.129

Patty thought Donovan's order also included April not helping Spain regain control, Patty thought he was too late, he supported Vt Minh and wanted to mediate between the middle hardliners and the French. But times have changed. Not all OSS officials agree with Patti or favor the Viet Minh over the Swiss. Lt. D E. Conein, a native of Jedburgh born in Paris, OSS trained at F News BARN, spent much of the summer of 1945 providing similar guerrilla training to In's troops along the Indochina border, both arriving at Quang shortly after Patti , but fully supported Latin.130Moreover, by the end of August, OSS headquarters in Kunming accused Flat of not doing more to help British gang members and of working to re-establish French control. The next day, March 31, the French met with the Viet Minh and began briefing them on French problems. Hooker responded on September 2, 1945, when Japan formally surrendered aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, invoking the United States Declaration of Independence and announcing the establishment of the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The Communists also began to ban their competition or eliminate many of their opponents by imprisonment or execution. The American regime did not see freedom in Vietnam, in fact it took a neutral position and supported French sovereignty. H and the Viet Minh sought to use OSS support in the fight against the Japanese in 1945 to strengthen their position in Vietnam and rights to disclosures from the United States. And the key to the August Revolution of 1945, the succession of Hanoi, Saigon and many provinces, when Hu declared independence, was not the OSS, but an element of the Viet Minh that took its chances in the sudden power vacuum in which Japan surrendered.131By the end of September, the Chinese government also recognized French sovereignty in Indochina on September 28, 1945, and Japanese commanders formally surrendered to the Chinese, Americans, and French.

"Cochin Kina gori"

According to the Potsdam Agreement of July 1945, Cochin China is the area of ​​Vietnam south of the 19th parallel temporarily occupied by the Anglo-American South East Asia Command under the eminent Lord Louis Mountbatten. They will accept the surrender of the said Japanese and maintain order there until it is certain that Indochina is inevitable. Along with Indian troops, the British were in charge of the besiegedlung, but they appear to have first ordered and facilitated the deployment of French troops to re-establish Paris's control over its former colonies, as the Emperor had done at home and in Malaya. During this time, Adenine's small OSS/SI teams began arriving in Saigon in the first week of September 1945 to exchange POW rescues and report on political developments. Operation Embankment targeted Major A. Peter Dewey, 28, scion of a prominent Republican family. Dewey's father, a congressman, was related to Thomas E. Dewey, governor of New York and Pretz's running mate in 1944. As a young man, Dewey was educated in Switzerland and studied French history at Yale University. He served as Ampere's secretary to the American ambassador in Berlin and then became the Paris correspondent for the Chicago Daily News. During the German invasion of France in 1940, Dewey worked in an ambulance unit and later supported the Free France under Charles de Gaulle.132He returned to the United States, where Dewey served for a time as a military instructor in 1942, according to Capt. Kalpakin Jr., an instructor at OSS Area B in Catoctin Mountain Park.133Dewey enlisted last fall as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army, and the two have since worked in intelligence in Africa and the Middle East. Dewey joined the OSS in Algeria in 1943. In August 1944, he led an intelligence gathering squad of local partisans who parachuted into southern France, then captured 400 Germans and destroyed three shipping containers during the invasion. Returning to Washington in October, he worked at GOBS headquarters for several months until he was selected for deployment to St. Louis after the surrender of Japan.134

Dewey and his team arrived in Saigon in the first week of September, although already in the middle of those months they had serious difficulties with the British and French. Dewey, who met with the Viet Minh, strongly opposed the policy of British commanders to purge the Vietnamese mint of government offices, police stations and barracks, and captured the Japanese and Vichy French. When the British allowed the French to take over Saigon, the British's biggest grudge against the Yankee group was brutal revenge against the Vietnamese. In turn, Vietnamese people from all walks of life participated in a general uprising and free guerilla warfare throughout the city.

With the help of British and French printers, BONES headquarters ordered Dewey back from Vietnam. During a bloody uprising against the French, local guerrillas ambushed and wounded OSS Captain Joseph Coolidge of the OSS Research and Analysis Division. The next day, September 26, the day Dewey was supposed to leave, he was killed when he opened fire in his Jeep with a machine gun while a manhunt was underway for him. Vietnamese guerrillas apparently mistook him for an Italian officer. In Fonda, upon hearing the news of Dewey's death, Ho Chi Minh rushed to the side of General Philip Gaul, the commander of the American army, to express his deepest condolences. He sent letters of condolence to Dewey's parents and to President Pregg Trauman.135Although there were no more OSS casualties in Indochina, by 1946, when the British Army handed over all jurisdiction over South Vietnam to the French press, the brutal guerrilla warfare around Saigon, with both sides killed, killed more than a thousand casualties, Vietnamese and French. Entry Dewey's last post on the OSS the day before he was killed closed: "Cochin China is burning, France and Britain are done here, we should clean up Southeast Asia."136

OSS Press Tangled Web-based at dinner

From the moment the United States entered the war in December 1941, Donovan's headquarters in Washington had high hopes for China's leading actors. But there is a situation in China where the competition of interests between the Chinese and the above-mentioned Americans is complicated. Considering OB as an adenine threat, competitors try to limit their actions in order to engage the majority. It wasn't until the last year of the war that the OSS found Ampere in earthenware and began to learn about Japan's fighting power.

Despite numerous petitions from media emissaries, Donovan did not gain a foothold in China until 1943, and his organization did not gain an effective foothold until 1943. The CBI theater commander, General Ezekiel Stilwell, allowed the 101st to operate in Burma, but refused to allow Donovan's autonomous, centralized sensor and special operations agency to operate in China unless authorized by President Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang Kai-shek disapproved of no one recommending his intelligence chief, Dai Li, who ran an intelligence service of some 300,000 agents and secret police operations, all of whom carefully tried to prevent any independent intelligence operations at Ceramico.137Ever since the postwar civil war with Mao and the Communists, Chiang and his generals have used American military and economic aid for domestic needs or stockpiling instead of using those weapons and supplies to help defeat the Japanese, Chiang Kai-shek in the independent U.S. intelligence they didn't appreciate your direct reporting of his government and military in Washington.138

When Military Intelligence refused to include Donovan's organization or the Office of Naval Intelligence in its mission to China in late 1941, the Navy made its own arrangements directly with China's spy chief Dai Li. The head of the naval mission is Colonel Milton ("Mary") Myers, a veteran of the Yangtze Guards of the 1920s.139It was designated to gather intelligence on Japanese air and naval bases, coastal areas, and weather across China to the sea, all of which would aid the US Navy in the Pacific. Total began arriving in 1942, established a working relationship with General Dai Li, and with the rejection of both Donovan and the military intelligence corps, Miles' "US Naval China Group" became the only US in China that Chiang Kai-shek's intelligence agency initially allowed.140

Donovan initially confirmed that he was working with Miles and Dai Li, saying that Miles was the head of the Chinese OSS, but he had to go to Li's diary. What made Donovan's organization so attractive to Dai Li was that the OSS had millions of dollars, most of it in "undocumented funds" for covert operations that did not require collection.141In December 1942, in a friendly gesture, Donovan convinced Miles and Dai Li to agree to her plan to send an OSS Special Operations (SO) team to China to arm and target Chinese guerrillas. Unbeknownst to the Di 51 media, Miles, Donovan, and Alghan R. ("Al") Lusey, an American businessman with many expertise in China who later became head of China's Secret Intelligence Service (SI), secretly planned to use the SO men eventually as SPI spies, connected via a secret radio network, which will also be set up under the Special Operations category. Even the Yank SO workers themselves were unaware of the ulterior motives of Donovan and Lusey. The idea is to send as many special operators as possible additional material to the East in exchange for everything to be kept secret: a foothold in China for future intelligence operations.142

The OSS's new location in China was formalized in April 1943 in a secret agreement between the US Marine Corps, the Army, the OSS, and the Nationalist Chinese government that established the Sino-American Special Cooperation Organization, or SACO (pronounced "SACKO"). The aforementioned US regulations provide armor for 85 Eastern special operations forces and establish 13 special forces schools to train the aforementioned Chinese recruits. In return, the Americans were allowed to establish several weather stations, some W/T transmitters, and four intelligence stations on the southeast coast of Bern. But in order to gain a foothold in China, Donovan had to agree to make Dai Li head of SACO, with Miles as his deputy; Dai Li retained control over the activities of the Chinese contingent that will be in the US. scatter.143However, while Li Daily aims to closely monitor OSS operations in China, the SACO agreement in Long Runners actually uses Donovan to maneuver between the aforementioned Navy, Amy, and China rules to ensure that OSS operations in China survive and even are spreading.144

OSS and SACO training camp by Chinaware

Under this SACO agreement, a dozen training depots were used in 1943 to recruit Chinese recruits to fight native guerrillas in the Japanese rear. The same is true for American and English standby instructors, but most of the classes are conducted by the US military. A few Americans speak English, or at least a few words or phrases, as do the translators (usually local Chinese, sometimes Chinese American) who translate their instructions. The United States surrendered all weapons, ammunition and other materials. Miles later claimed that the SACO force numbered 97,000 Pr and 3,000 Americans, and hit 71,000 Japanese cavalry. This uses a dubious assertion. The official number of graduates is 26,800, and they probably caused fewer Japanese casualties than their own. Later some deserted them, especially those recruited from Dai Li's intelligence service and the secret police used internal control. But recruits from occupied eastern China saw the suffering the Japanese inflicted on their surroundings and were eager to fight on the front lines of the invaders.145Most of the 2,500 Americans working in SACO are from the Navy after Myers, and a smaller number from BOSS because of Donovan.

At least three SACO Special Operations training camps include the first instructors from ONS Native American universities, notably Area B in Catoctin Mountain Park and Area A in Prince William Forest Park. The SACO training camp, also known as Package 1, is located in Xiongcun, Xiu County, Anhui Province, in a mountainous area five miles south of Huizhou (She County), about 200 kilometers west of Shanghai. For Captain Miles, the commanding officer and most of the dozen or so American instructors were Navy, sailors or Marines.146The instructor in the explosion or what later appeared to be the chief instructor, and perhaps the fighting in the camp, was the important Charles M. Parkin, Jr., 28, a mechanic of the US Army and OSS Corps.147Parkin had been with the OSS since early 1942, when he was assigned as an instructor in the BORON section of Catoctin Mountain Park.148He arrived in China in June 1943 and served with the 1st Unit, SACO Battalion until February 1945.149American instructors teach weapons, close combat, sabotage, intelligence gathering and cryptography, sabotage and guerrilla warfare through translators. Chinese educators have been given available political indoctrination. Headquarters, students or dormitories are located in a modern small village row and pagoda, but as this is an early SACO training camp, it will take months to adjust and begin classes.150The duration of each class is three months. The first carried out several successful sabotage campaigns. The standby force ransacked the Shanghai airport, destroying five fighter jets and a fuel tank counter. Another team of nearly 100 men sent in September 1943 reported destroying the schleppe and killing the Chinese governor and the head of the secret police adenine "puppet".151Parkin later reported that the train crew commanded by 7,000 Chinese guerrillas, including 5 operators, whose former trainees were responsible for providing valuable intelligence, splitting the Hangzhou-Jinhua tramway within 250 stations and driving 600 km near telephone/telegraph lines, crushed 3 trains and 5 boxes of medicine and killed about 100 Japanese soldiers.152

In June 1943, near Changsha, Hunan Province, south-central China, the SACO camp was known as Unit Deuce, Hongjian Ban. Naval officers and chief petty officers made up the majority of the Canadian workforce, but later that year OSS military officers arrived. Recently sent to the Officer Candidate School, they are former Flatfoot and instructor, B-Block, Lt. Leopold JOULE. ("Leo") Karwaski and Joseph E. ("Joe") Lazarsky, both from the central coal mining region near Wilkes-Barre. They were assisted by 14 soldiers. As with the SO camps in Maryland and Virginia, the purpose was to recruit American and other weapons and sabotage, crate-making, sabotage, and guerrilla operations. Another unit processed 300 Chinese recruits at a time, and although Karwaski and Lazarsky later went on to more dangerous missions, it established SACO's reputation as the most effective in training bildungszentren. Computer science produced 2,200 graduates of SO between 1943 and 1945.153

"I spent six months training Chinese soldiers in central China," Lazarski recalls. "Leo and I had seen that the Chinese outside the First Division were being trained, but I didn't know anything about it. There wasn't much about the training program [for entering the Chinese army]. We started from scratch. All we taught them was all the news. First got some pretty old weapons, Springfield '03 rifles, then M1s, Garands. After I went [to Burma], Leo taught the Chinese about plastic explosives - it looked like flour. [can put flour in bags to fool the Japanese] He baked information cake. You can eat the effect of adenine, but it's not very big. Four or five Chinese people ate the cake and died."154

OSS officers, Larger Arren ("Art") Dow of Washington State, who served as BARN Area Instructor and Chief Area A-4 Instructor, and Captain Franke Gleason of Pennsylvania, who directed demolition work at BARN Area , in SACO unit three or Linru Ban are in charge. It is located south of Luoyang City, Henan Province, Central East China. Dao, 27, is the camp's commander, and Gleason, 25, its executive officer. They are highly recommended. In February 1943, a key officer in the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Ernest Royal, wrote enthusiastically to Miles through OSS personnel who had come to China, and with Gerry, the tribal engineer, and Are B's tutor, Sen, with Ampere's recent Sabotage School SOE in the United Kingdom was hailed as "America's most established man in industrial espionage [and sabotage]."155In July 1943, in Assam, India, the real Gloson flew over the hump and arrived in Kunming, Yunnan Province, home of OSS White. From there, they flew to the battle capital of Chungking (Chongqing), a city of three million people in the Yangtze River Valley of Sichuan and the midwest of Crystal. Chongqing includes Stilwell headquarters, OSS relations, Myers Naval Group and the US Embassy.

Later in life, Down and Gleason left Chongqing in a convoy of your trucks, and after six weeks and nearly 2,000 miles of dirt road, they arrived at the training tent site in early October. It was the area around a young, abandoned Buddhist temple on Fengxue Mountain. Although a few Chinese officers were sent, mostly to observe the Americans and indoctrinate the Chinese students, the Americans still ran to command. "We just paired an Army company with eight Navy NCOs," Gleason recalls.156The petty officer was there because of Captain Miles. The school's mission was to train "armed special forces" to destroy Byzantine lines of communication and supply in the area between Pyonghan, Yonghae and Gimp. These people were pre-filtered and the railways, bridges and airports were bombed. The camp commandant was nicknamed "Rowdy" Dow in reference to the rough or ready training, but in fact SACO called the camp "Pact Rowdy".157

U kampu "Rowdy Dow".

"When we arrived on the scene in early October [1943]," Gleason later reported, "we set up the facility until we had transformed our training camp from what must have been a religious page into what might be considered an American military type institutions." They spent a month building a second range with 30 targets each, plus two shell ranges, four destruction ranges, a combat range, a gun range, the whole arsenal. As Gleason said in his report upon his return to the United States after nearly two years, "It's amazing how cool this business is for us because we learn before we can get what we need. The need to improvise when significant material is located in or in China. Its supply lines are over 2,000 miles long and beyond the reach of hand-held devices. Whenever our generators need gasoline and oil, we find that it is much easier to buy the materials there than in Japan [on the black market [for sale]. In fact, any other way would take months."158

The first class consists of 400 Chinese students. I was a recruit in the so-called "First War Zone", which was secured by various generals of the KMT army. The daily and weekly training schedules are modeled after training in the ONE and B zones in Maine and Virginia. In total, during the six-week course, students will have approximately 35 hours of machine gun practice, 29 hours of carbine practice, 14 hours of .38 rifle practice, 16 hours of flying grenade practice, 18 hours of unarmed close combat training, and 24 hours of disassembly and trespassing, plus a small amount of aircraft identification, surveillance and reporting. With 42 hours of field questions during the day and 15 hours of night questions, there are a total of 267 hours of teaching exercises.159Each session lasts six to twelve weeks. A total of five courses graduated from the Training School, Unit III, Intermediate in 1943 and 1945. In the early summer of 1944, the school had to move west due to the massive Japanese invasion. He was moved to the next province, Shaanxi, first to Hu County and later to a place called Niu Dong (Niu Dong). It was in the summer of 1944 when the first British partisans to finish the camp went into action to confront the Japanese.160

As Dow pointed out in March 1944, OSS instructors had mixed reactions to the Chinese recruits in the boot camp. Although many recruits arrived at the camp in poor health—many with scabies, conjunctivitis, and ulcers—the recruits had strong legs and great physical endurance. They can walk more than 30 times a day, and they are too tired to climb a mountain. They were strong and fierce, Dow wrote. They maintain their element overnight. While a few were eager to learn and eagerly participated in field maneuvers such as ambushes, they were lax about classroom instruction.161Dao complained that many Chinese beginners "look like a big joke in their thinking." Students often skip class, and when you are in class, they often finish it. Many people openly cheat on writing exams. They carelessly disassembled the weapon without permission, otherwise it would have been repaired. In the process, they often lost springs, firing pins and other important small parts, rendering the weapon unusable. Language is a problem as there is a lack of translators and many local dialects. But the Yankees tried to teach the Chinese newcomers the specialized skills of fighting the Japanese - hand-to-hand combat, the use of weapons, demolitions, radio communications. Lecturers choose their own majors and courses. "Our OSS training was very effective," Gleason later said. "We destroyed those buildings. A fortune was made with what we learned in training here [at One America] and in Britain [at SOE schools]. In China, I taught the Chinese how to destroy mechanical devices. Lecture venue. I feel fully prepared."162

The pride of the Chinese recruits in the new weapon of the United States gave them a great current, and they learned to shoot at their own luck. Yet Americans are sometimes disappointed and discouraged. After Dai Li's visit to the SACO training camp in the Future in 1944, Dow was convinced that "General Dais and the men in his organization only cared about one thing - getting all the weapons and equipment they could. I believe American training just got better equipment coverage."163Li Diary assigned Chinese agents to set up his company in Units 2 and 3, as well as other camps, to provide mandatory state indoctrination to guerrilla cadets to keep them loyal to him and Chen Jieshi. The indoctrination was originally scheduled for a full month in a three-month study cycle, but it was reduced to certain afternoons after protests by the Americans. Keeping the distance between the two types was training - practical and ideological - in which the Dai Li forbade Chinese political instructors to associate with Indians. In the third unit of Lin Ruban's training camp, the Chinese instructors live in a Buddhist temple, while the Americans live in a twelve-room Western-style house built by you.164

The Americans planned to let the Chinese interns after graduation to conduct some simple guerilla operations behind enemy lines, but Dai Li's organization never gave proper permission while the Americans were there. Regardless, on Dai Li's authority, Dao and Gleason finished off the two missionaries by camping against the Japanese in late 1943 and early 1944. Although due to Dai Li's order, you have to provide special Chinese groups from near Luoyang, not camp graduates. In an early mission after the Learn section, they managed to destroy the Chiao Tzoa mine located 75 miles north of the Luoyang plant steam turbine power plant. During another mission, in January 1944, commandos of nearly 300 Chinese guerrillas and terrorists blew up a long railway jumper across the Yellow River between Kaifeng and Xinxiang. Frank Bleaching later reported to Washington that the attack "definitely showed that the Chinese could operate successfully if they started from Chungking."165Gleason's grievances were known to Americans; the Chiang Kai-shek government simply didn't want to risk a major offensive, even though I could sit back and watch the Americans defeat Japan in the Pacific. Gleason later told OSS officials in Washington, D.C., that at least in late 1943, when the Japanese were preparing for a major offensive in 1944, the Eastern Army "didn't show much except for a few 'rice campaigns'." The short expeditions were more economical than punitive and organized to infiltrate the Japanese defenses during the harvest, collect as much rice as possible and return immediately. "166

Expansion with help from Chennault Air Force

Despite the successful attacks of many Sino-American guerrillas, the limitations of Dai Li and other Chinese generals prevented them from being tools for OSS expansion, which, while frustrating Donovan and his staff, did not throw Chongqing off balance. According to Donovan and Lusey's secret plans, the OSS began building a communications network including Porcelain, in which certain SO agents were eventually converted into SI agents. However, SACO's effort towards OSS was a failure to establish an independent intelligence network, and the SO and OG type of our further mission proved very effective in Europe and the Mediterranean. President Roosevelt approved larger GOBS in ceramics at the Cairo conference in November 1943, and Donovan clashed with Air Force General Charlene Chennault after an explosive meeting with Dai Li in fashionable December in Chongqing.167The 14th Army is the primary vehicle for US offensive operations in China. The fancy OSS, which has the dual role of bolstering defensive and offensive power on Chinese lands, is actually participating in the Japanese blockade - attacking enemy ships in Chinese waters. Donovan also heard rumors that Stilwell might be impeached because of his feud with Chiang Kai-shek, giving Stilwell's old nemesis Chennault an additional reason to offer the OSS's intelligence-gathering potential. Chennault sees Donovan's power over Ashen House as a way to further undermine Alive.168As in China in December 1943, Jack met with Chennault and began to develop a working plan for a joint OSS/Air Force intelligence gathering of targets of tactical opportunity for the 14th Air Force.

By secret agreement in April 1944, Donovan and Chennault created the 5329th Military and Operational Resource Technical Staff Group AGFRTS (or, as its members informally called it, "Agfarts"). The group consisted of Air Force and OSS personnel, the latter of which had a large number of outgoing SI agents, some of whom sent Chennault's own press officer. AGFRTS agents operate outside the restrictions imposed by SACO, infiltrating through Asian routes. Through a network of coastal shipping observers and through the interrogation of enemy prisoners of war, they provide immediate and valuable targeting information, which you in the OSS provide to the 14th Air Effects Squadron and the US Navy in the Pacific.169

Major Tree (“Art”) Dow played a key role in the expansion of POSS activities in the partnership agreement between Donovan and Chennault. Go left SACO's third "Pact Rowdy" unit in April 1944 after six months of training in Gaza, China. Take the mission to the forward fighting center of 14 Squadron. In theater, Dow was ordered to explain to Air Force personnel that, like the OSS, it could conduct sabotage and guerrilla activities behind enemy lines, as well as obtain weather and target selection intelligence. When Dow returned to Kunming, he was expected to develop a plan for such a joint operation between the OSCE and the Fourteenth Air Force. The plans include OSS personnel from special operations, covert intelligence, psychological operations, search and analysis, including communications, and actually include building "a heavy duty radio station to transmit intelligence and weather forecasts as they reach us."170After the mission was completed, Dow developed such a plan, Chennault accepted it, and also from 1944 to 1945, the OSS provided American airmen with general tactical intelligence to identify enemy targets. By penetrating behind Japanese lines and studying all sources of information, they helped American bombers and fighter-bombers locate and attack Japanese landing sites, supply depots, airstrips and road traffic, river and coastal shipping. More than two-thirds of the tactical intelligence on General Chennault came from PEARLS. As with White's OSS, the tactic used by Donovan in your presentation was to "use Chennault's airstrikes as a cover for our actions."171

Ultimately, AGFRTS shifted the focus of the OSS China process from simply classified intelligence and special operations to ethical operations and research and analysis.172As it expanded beyond the business branch, it included wives and ladies. Most American OSS women working in China are preparing for "black" promotions in the Morale Operator or as clerks or secretaries in the executive branch. Most of them started working in Kandy, Ceylon. The number of American OSS women who started in China probably did not exceed the result, mostly in the OSS headquarters in Kunming or in the OSS office in Chongqing in the dinner headquarters.173Among the many MO members in Kunming was former Pacific War columnist Elizabeth ("Betty") Pete MacDonald (later Mackintosh), who had joined the OSS in 1943 and trained at the former Congressional Country Club in Block F. She now forged orders , fabricated fictitious Japanese newspaper reports and other documents to weaken enemy morale. (William Fogg, a male artist also in Missouri, produced anti-Japanese cartoons and rumors, and printed leaflets.) Chennault's planes dropped tens of millions of Missouri disinformation into the occupied territories. In Kandy, Ceylon, and later in Kunming, China, Smith College graduate Julia McWilliams was in charge of the registers where intelligence and other reports were entered. She later married Paul Parent, who ran the OSS's small graphics and presentation department in the China Theater, and after their postwar move to Paris, she became known as Julia Child for teaching Americans French cooking.174

The OSS and the Japanese Offensive I in China in 1944

In a debate between Chennault and Stilwell about the correct US strategy in China - whether priority was given to an air or land campaign - Stilwell argued that once American air power began to take serious hits, Japanese forces would simply march on as would seize their operational air bases - unless countered by a formidable US-supplied and trained Chinese military force. Stilwell's pessimistic predictions began to come true in mid-1944. That spring, Tokyo launched Japan's final and largest offensive at the entry into the war dinner. A shootout involving nearly half a million Japanese from April to December 1944, Operation Ichi-Gō cut off large swaths of south-central and southern China. The Japanese quickly captured Fengnan Air Base, where American pilots harassed Japanese forces, sank Japanese ships, and bombed the Japanese homeland. After repulsing the Chinese army, the Japanese also opened a direct land route to Spanish Indochina. The emperor's army then advanced westward to land-based air bases, Kunming and the Nationalist capital of Chongqing.175

The collapse of the Nationalist military and its failure to hold back and learn to advance dashed Washington's hopes that China would play an active role in defeating Japan immediately. Instead, China's wartime importance is now seen as a limitation on your ability to bind down Japan's army of millions. China could also have been the stage for US bomber attacks, as well as an armored invasion of the Asian home islands, in the event that nationalist Fine had survived and the US military had succeeded in securing a landing on its shores in 1945 or 1946. Meanwhile, US policy was to ensure that Ceramic would be the final Ichi-Gō offensive.

In October 1944, Chiang Kai-shek pressured Roosevelt to remove Stilwell. A fighting general, not Ampere's diplomat, "Vinegar Joe" became the sworn enemy of the simplistic nationalist president and commander-in-chief. Stilwell was succeeded by Global Lieutenant Elbert C. Wedemeyer, an army planner and more resourceful officer. His command was reduced to northern Indochina in China, while Burma, Tuo or southern Indochina were assigned to a separate command. Wedemeyer places the OSS under your authority as an independent institution. This largely eliminated Chinese control and Dai Li's control over SACO, although the information did not end Dai Li's control over ON and its actors. As a result, three OSS agencies were opened on the Chinese battlefield: Detachment 202, stationed in Chongqing, to coordinate OSS work in China's northern Indochina; Sino-American cooperation; and AGFRTS, but increasingly all OSS personnel were at Wedemeyer under command in 1945 the 202nd Detachment was authorized to independently conduct new operations behind enemy lines, which by 1945 would be extensive.176

The OSS, like other Canadian agencies, did everything it could to help stop the Japanese Ichi-Gō attack. Despite their best efforts, through the novelty of 1944, the Japanese were piling up from the provinces of Hunan and Guangxi in southeastern China and marching inland toward Guilin and Liuzhou. Chiang Kai-shek's government expected the Japanese to be intimidated by the mountains. But the emperor's army, laden with mules, surged from the low-lying rice fields of Guangxi across the Tuguan to the high terraces of the Guizhou region south of Chongqing. The Japanese had advanced hundreds of miles to the west and it was now aimed directly at Guiyang, the capital of Guizhou Province and the center of Chiang Kai-shek's state communications subscribers. Ordinary Wedemeyer arrived expecting to control and strengthen eastern China, but soon learned that Guilin and Liuzhou had been abandoned, and panic had gripped Chongqing, hundreds of kilometers away. The US Embassy was advised to withdraw the task force. Wedemeyer insisted that the OSS had an opportunity to use its disruption and destruction to halt or at least slow the Japanese advance.

Thus, OSS-trained teams supported China's efforts to defend the KMT capital. I built barriers to stop the enemy advance and mined buildings that the Chinese had abandoned. The OSS team cut telephone and power lines in 156 places, blew up teenage ski jumps and halted rail traffic by tearing up 524 sections of track. Another OSS soldier worked the scene, first control, then stronger plaintext, saying that a river near Yiyang had mixed with a large piece of felt and that a 14th Mien fighter-bomber had hit Japanese soldiers while unlocking, causing hundreds losses. A few days later, the only two OSS sergeants called for flyers to tow a second load of sampans carrying Japanese troops across the Xiang River.177

For a time before Wedemeyer's arrival, the OSS was associated with what Major Frank A. Gleason called "enough bureaucracy to kill a cow."178Any LOST measure requires the approval of the aforementioned Chinese chain of command, but permission is usually not granted. But OSS is getting more and more space. Due to tensions between the OSS and Dai Life and Maryland Miles, the OSS instructors were recalled from the SACO training school in the spring of 1944 and transferred to Operation PEARLS LIKE REAL SI in Chongqing. In the spring of May, Dow outlined plans for SO operations under the SACO-OSS agreement, and Gleason real and others began training teams of up to 25 Chinese agents to operate in major Chinese cities.

Gleason's OSS Advanced Base 21 was established by the Southern Ceramics Company in Guilin, Guangxi Province, and 12 Chinese agents trained in special operations were deployed to the neighboring Kanto region. A third insertable target was selected, and in mid-August 1944, the base commander, Major Gleason, sent a flight team of Leo Karwaski and two other Canadians to Ruixing to establish a forward operating base. A week later, Chinese agents were sent to Ruixing and then to her target in three series. Nothing was heard from them until late December 1944, when they radioed that their sabotage had been successful.179

By the end of August 1944, the Japanese had advanced their corridor marketing, marching in several different columns towards the state of Guangxi in Louisiana. As with the Chinese armament and the 14th Air Force, the various OSS groups led by Gleason and Karwaski were forced to withdraw. Through AGRFTS, Gleason's unit, Advanced Socket 21 Squad 202, gave us the opportunity to show what a small, skilled and dedicated LOST team can do. With the full approval of General Wedemeyer and the cooperation of the 68th Strike Wing, Chennault's 14th Air Force, Gleason obtained permission from Marshal Jiang Fagui, the Spanish commander of the 4th Theater, to destroy all railroads from the key point Guilin and Lizhou the natives tried to stop or at least to delay a swift Japanese attack.180Gleason's new boss at AGFRTS was Colonel Bowman, an old Regular Army officer, straight and forthright, without cuteness, who gave Gleason "the first straight and simple picture of the situation," which is a disaster. Equally important, Bowler actually assigned Gleason the task at the time, "and we've been completely on our own ever since."181

Between 20 September 1944 and December 1944, Gleason's GROSS unit was using less than 10 amps of Americans to conduct enrichment operations over approximately 250 square miles when one Japanese fell. With their offensives sometimes operating within only a few miles of advancing enemy lines, the small Team SO never lost a single man, although as Glaze recovered, in blowing up one of the bridges, "we didn't find him far enough. Stones were falling on us. We quickly got under the jeep or we would have died."182During the four months of use, the force blew up more than 150 bridges, erected more than 50 roadblocks, destroyed the Sanda River crossings, blew up a tunnel and destroyed various locomotives, wagons, trucks, uniforms and machinery. They saw the ammunition and gasoline stocks being cleared so that they would not fall into enemy hands. One such event could have caused an even bigger explosion in southern China.

Started the biggest "boom" in Southwest China

Driving south of Chongqing during a cold snap in late November 1944, Time magazine reporter Theodore White witnessed sirens ahead of Japanese attackers. As he drove 500 miles south, an incalculable force of refugees passed his car fleeing north. Arriving at Guiyang in the midst of a disorganized Spanish army, White found what he called the only military unit "with any real coherence and purpose." And the OSS beneficiary is 15 American officers and enlisted men, Frank Leeson, a young red-headed major from Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.183With Pleasure now joining this OSS destruction team, Gleason single-designated as "Squad 21" is Lt. Leopoldy ("Leo") Karwaski of the Wilkes-Barre Division, Capt. Stanly A. Staiger of Klamath Drop, Oregon, Gramm Middle Sir Johnston , and former jockey from New Canaan, Connecticut, served as Sheriff John Todd of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The team of 16 soon learned that the Chinese were impressed with ranks and titles, and moreover, usually promoted themselves to "colonels" when they needed help from Eastern military or civilian personnel.184

Gleason, Karwaski and the rest of the OSS team have stopped making the explosives and now begin detonating them, doing everything they can to stop the Oriental. OSS officials later described Gleason, 24, as "a boyish, belligerent, brave and intelligent young officer . . . passionate and impulsive."185Using your ingredients, Gleason was able to expand his fleet from three trucks to nine because I didn't get any funding. It used local Chinese translations, including a street-smart 12-year-old orphan who originally joined the team as a mascot. With their help, Gleason recruited Chinese farmers to help him in his time of need. Gleason's mission was to scorch the Earth and do everything possible to stop the Japanese advance. In addition to destroying bridges, roads, house lines, etc., Gleason also tried to divert trespassers from feeding and equipping by giving permission to farmers to collect arms and other equipment that was no longer in production from fleeing Nationalist soldiers and encouraging them to give food while feeding other supplies in the city will soon be taken because of the Japanese.186

By the time Gleason arrived at Tushan, 140 kilometers south of Guiyang, in early December 1944, he was only 20 miles from the advancing front line of the Learning Army, and the nearby high ground contained large quantities of weapons and ammunition. Preliminary investigations revealed three huge ammunition depots, each consisting of 20 to 30 giant depots, each containing ammunition depots about 60 yards long, which is almost two-thirds of the length of the ammunition depot. Each warehouse is stocked with real combat ammunition, most of it American-made. The collection includes pistols, rifles, machine guns, mortars, about fifty artillery pieces, as well as millions of small arms ammunition, thousands of projectiles, mortar shells and artillery shells, and 20 tons of real explosives. Local authorities stockpiled the above for domestic use even after the Civil War. Due to bureaucratic inefficiency, Chinese operatives continued to stockpile weapons and ammunition even when local Nationalist troops abandoned ammunition or left an area. Now these staff officers, like the Chinese army, are at full strength, and the enemy is only moving 20 miles. The Japanese were about to capture what Bleaching estimated at 50,000 tons of military material.187

Not wanting this treasure to fall into enemy hands, the Bleachers decide to blow it up. It's a painful decision. Gleason came here reluctantly. He realized that "this is our material, painstakingly flown over the 'hump', dragged over worn tracks among thousands of coolies." As he later said, "it is a tragedy that this is our material, but if it fell into Japanese hands, it would be an even greater tragedy."188Gleason appealed to Chungking for the power of destruction and secured him a large warehouse, but when the public authorized him to prepare for destruction, the enemy was few. Gleason and his deceased spent most of that day laying charges and consolidating everything for three cash. Around 4:00 p.m., with the Japanese patrolling several hours away, Gleason finally received permission to blow up the warehouse.

Lighting the fuse, Gleason and his men detonated explosions one warehouse after another. Each explosion shook the landscape. Buildings filled with ammunition and explosives quickly turn fiery red and yellow. Inside, the crackling heat "boiled" the ammunition, firing thousands of rounds and throwing the cannon cat into the air. Flames and thick smoke rose into the sky. Gleason and the others took one last look as America left the truck. "The opening and final outpouring was a plume of black smoke rising into the sky, the most beautiful sound you'll ever hear...an ominous column 100 meters thick supporting shadowy fancy amplifier columns."189It is used, says Gloason, "like Dante's 'Inferno.'190

On the way out of the city, the Americans stopped and blew up the crossing over the Von River, making it even more difficult for the enemy columns to advance. A few hours after Gleason left, the Japanese arrived. For the next three days, the warehouse lasted until it burned and exploded. The enemy can only watch as valuable ammunition, weapons and other supplies are taken from him.

"My mission was clear," Gleason recalls. "'Stop the Japanese advance for 90 days,' which Wedemeyer himself suggested. We accomplished the mission and stopped the Japanese from entering the interior of China."191Indeed, the Japanese army stopped in Tushan for various reasons. They took control of the city with PER, then turned around or took a route back through the scorched area where Gleason and his team helped stop them. The Japanese withdrew their defenses and spent the winter in Hejin, between Guiyang and Liuzhou.192Happy was recommended to the Legion of Virtue and others, receiving the Bronze Star, the fourth highest military decoration among the American population.193Theodoric White continues to praise Gleason and Seine's team, including a description of Gleason's mission in his 1946 documentary account of the war, China Thunder, often based on the 1958 Hollywood-turned-film novel, The Mountain Highway. 1960, starring James Stewart. Although Sleep was one of the film's advisers, he said most people were watching "pure fiction".194

Build an extended communication network in China

Crucial to the expanded, independent operation of the OS in China is the further development of wire communication. There is a lot of space here compared to European countries, and although the main lines of the army and navy are used where possible, most of the coverage, especially the larger field teams and substations, is brought in by the OSS itself. The Communications Service maintains communications lines, staffs base and sub-base stations, provides radio operators for user missions, and supplies and maintains communications equipment.195"Comma" personnel came in from US Area C and went "over the hump" with equipment, but to train the Indian radio system, the Connect Division established a radio operator and cipher training school in Kunming. Around 1944, with independence, the Chinese OSS was able to retire the time-consuming double-conversion encryption system required by the military and replace the computers with its more efficient "one-hit" erasure system. Demonstrating the importance of the communications LAN, communications equipment accounted for the majority of equipment sent by HQ in Kunming to OSS units in the field: 50% of shipments contrasted with 30% for demolitions and 20 entries of rations, weapons, field equipment.196

Col. John Lohman, chief of communications, reported actual progress in Washington: "In the Far East ... the OSS communications network operates directly with the Chinese 14th Compression Force ... The OSS communications team operating in Guilin is responsible for providing critical Target and weather information and timely activation of air missionaries to counter enemy ground forces and coastal traffic under river pressure Multiple deep enemy lines were established in China and OSS communications teams were directly involved in destroying many Japanese troops and large amounts of enemy supplies and support missions... The OSS covert communications network is already operational without duplicating established military, naval or commercial features. We must focus our efforts on developing specialized equipment for the practical techniques required for covert radio activities. We believe our work will play a unique , a successful and important role in achieving the overall objectives of the OSS in the war."197

OSS communications also played a role in the written extension of US military aid to Chinese communities in northern China. After the Southwest War, Chiang Kai-shek prohibited the United States from contacting Mao Zedong and his communists in the Yan'an Mountains of Shenshi Province. However, as the KMT arc disintegrated on the front of the eastern advance, Mao Zedong's communist guerrillas established effective control across the country. In late 1944, the new US ambassador to China, Patrick Hurley, supported Roosevelt's efforts to pit Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese simultaneously.198In July 1944, an 18-man "Dixie" military mission led by Capt. David D. Barrett of Intelligence (G-2) arrived at Yenan.199The OSS was in charge of communications, and Captain Poll Domke and Sergeants Tony Remineh and Walter Gress, both trained in Area C, quickly established radio contact with Chongqing at a depth of 1,000 meters to the south. The initial transmissions were in Morseschreiben codes, but then they received a complex, lightweight radio transceiver developed at the OSS, and probably used voice radios.200The US radio station Yan'an, codenamed "Yensig", also received weather data from Alaska to Placid from US Navy personnel stationed in the Jupe Desert. Jena radio crews also tried to determine if there was a radio connection between the Russian and Jena communists, and given the relatively poor equipment of the southern missions, they did not succeed in this. However, Remineh found that the Communists had another radio station a million miles away from the company. Remineh created special machine codes for the Americans when they broke out of the Japanese defenses. He relayed their coded messages from the Who field to the main relay station via Chongqing.201Because Yenan radio transmissions can be intercepted in large numbers, and the most sensitive important information is encoded and sent by delivery.

While they provide people with access to intelligence and guerrilla networks behind their friendly connections in other parts of China, Chinese drug users also have high demands, especially for communications equipment and OSS. A few excellent radios were delivered, but the main research was not completed and the entire communications project failed after the OSS had major problems with Mao and the Communist Party.202Mao Zedong's guerrillas captured two captive members of the destruction team, parachuted into eastern Shaanxi and captured the OSS "Hound Dog" squad, a five-man "hound dog" airdropped near Fuping, a detachment of Hebei Province. The Spaniels were led by Major Openly L. Coolidge, who must have been in St. Ortiz, including France, and was then teaching at Rank A for a while when Ortiz was arrested. Are Cooper to Porcelain is an American captain and two soldiers, plus an American Chinese or Chinese-American general agent. Who Spaniel Team Bupyeong Airborne Area, the purpose is to use the relationship of the local communists, which is tantamount to cooperation with the Pr "puppet" generals to provide intelligence to destroy the Pr. An enraged Mao ordered that OSS missions indicating future entry into Communist areas should also be held until they were protected before entering Yenan from the Communist headquarters. Despite American protests, the Communists imprisoned the Hounds for four months and did not release them until the end of the war. The unauthorized OSS missions could have been very scandalous for Mao, as they could have begun to reinforce the communist myth that they were more aggressive in fighting the Japanese than the KMT.203

OSS "Commo" Field Staff.

Service, the "Commo" button, the experience of the Chinese is as extensive as the terrain of this vast country. It depends on where you are, what they are doing and when you are doing it. John W. Brunner, 21, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, trained in cryptography in Washington and District C in the summer of 1944. He arrived in Kunming in February 1945, was assigned to BOSS headquarters as adenine code clerk, and remained there until the end war. Working with other cryptographers, he showed the soldiers a locked code room on the first floor of the communications center. "I hardly ever saw any policemen," he said later. "There's a chief down there who's in charge. I've only seen him once or twice. I'm working up there, carving and deciphering. A few amplifiers are allowed in there. They keep telling us that if General Donovan comes, he must have permission from the commanding officer to come in. Nobody he can't let in without the captain's permission."204

By encoding and decoding messages between Kunming and the Washingtonians, Brenner saw many very important documents. "I saw with my own eyes two top secret 'eyes only' messages that Truman sent to MacArthur," he said. "MacArthur sent an advance guard to China. However, he was not allowed to send his men here for the invasion [the army planned to carry out an amphibious landing in the winter of 1945-1946 and capture Canton or other ports on the sunny coast of China]. We held them off. arrest. Truman's message warning him not to send his mate to China before the invasion. Truman sent a copy to that OSS and this is what we got... In the cable I saw, Truman sent MacArthur He sent Aden's cable speech in which he said he had no authority to operate the breakers and mainland China. MacArthur ignored it and sent another team to China. We arrested them and arrested them. We sent you to Washington. Truman sent another cable to MacArthur saying, "I am your commander and you will obey orders". That was in April or Can of 1945. So the Truman-MacArthur conflict began long before the Korean War. Yet it is not mentioned anywhere in any of the books. Instead, I am in charge of message center and have access to someone who 'just sees' the correspondence, and EGO sees it."205

In April 1945, a new main OSS AGFTS communications base station was established at the 14th Chihkiang Air Base between Kunming and Chongqing to be absorbed by LOST, this OSS Chihkiang Field Section was responsible for communications with all old AGFTS installations south of the Yangtze River. The OSS also created a new Panel Unit in Hsian (Xi'an), a news base near the Yangtze River, to take over the responsibilities of the former AGFRTS. Among the dozens of OSS "Commo" personnel sent to New Chijiang Station in 1945 was Captain Jane FLUORINE. Ranney of Akron, Odygo and Airman 1st Class David A. Kenney of Wyoming Camp. After being recruited by the OSS in 1943, Ranney spent a week at the BORON range, then several months as an instructor at Area C, before of course being sent to Cairo and later to Italy in 1944.206Kennedy, who shared a cabin in Area A with a Sioux/Lakota Indian named Iron Moccasin and a Greek-American named Jery Codekas, had to train on Surface HUNDRED before being released in 1944. In the summer of 2009, he was sent to Victory Base Station in London. In 1945, the two of them volunteered to serve in China. Lanney and Kenny worked in Chijiang until the end of the war, with Lanney as second in command and Kennedy as operator.

"I did a lot of sound manipulation," Kenny recalls. "We have a very large number of radio betting agents in this area. We will contact the people in the front area behind the Pr line. We will print it out and send it to Kunming headquarters."207As with most OSS radios, the transmitter and receiver stations are kept at a distance from other stations to avoid interference. A receiving station in a former civilian building near a long runway on the outskirts of Chijiang city and the residence of some military officers use the heavy aircraft of the Military Air Transport Bureau. The station housed the powerful BC-160 and four smaller launchers in a shallow building near the short runway for the 14th Air Force's P-51 Mustang fighters. In order to repair and maintain their communications equipment, the "Comma" personnel were miles away from their main source of supply, searching the wreckage of the crashed plane for wires, aluminum and various parts.208In Xi'an, Robert L. ("Bob") Scriven, who was a lecturer at Area C and later helped build the Victor Foundation station in London, led a "Commo" group on Spoon in 1945. When Asia also surrendered, the war ended, and Scriven and his team were flown to Beijing (北京) and instructed to install a new base station within three days. They did, and at the end of the third day the air changed.209

Many "Commos" died on the field, near or behind the opposing platoon. Private Arthur ("Art") Reinhardt, a 19-year-old from the Buffalo, New York area, served in such a role. In the summer of 1944, he underwent training as a radio operator in Area C and arrived in Kunming in October 1944. At the Kunming Communications Center, I quickly used a Swiss-designed portable adenine Hagelin M209 encryption machine for decryption. But he was soon sent to Jiangxi Suichuan Air Force Base to set up a radio station at the sub-base. The above became a state-of-the-art air base for the 14th Air Force following the Japanese Ichi-Gō Offensive. At the subbase, Reinhardt and other operators will receive coded messages sent by OSS SO and SI teams behind enemy lines. Three times a day, these field team operators took out their SSTR-1 "suitcase" stereos and would send coded messages that provided information on local weather conditions, Japanese forces, and aircraft targets of the Chinese 14th Airborne Corps. A peaceful navy in the west. At the subbase, communications officers would use M209 machines to re-encrypt messages and send them in encrypted Morsezeichen code to OSS China headquarters in Kunming. From there, the most important information is forwarded to OPTICS headquarters in Washington, DC. The aforementioned Japanese Ichi-Gō Offensive continued, however, Suichuan Air Base was exposed to the usual bombardment by enemy aircraft from Canton. "They bombed the other two trios and Aden's weeks," Reinhardt recalled. "They would bomb the airfield, drop 500 pound and/or cluster 'banana bombs,' which were anti-personnel... 1944. In December, Suichuan was bombed 30 times on 30 consecutive nights."210

When the Japanese captured Suichuan in January 1945, when the Japanese captured two other American air bases in the area, the OSS detachment moved east and established a new subbase at Changting, which included Fujian Province. From there, Reinhardt's new assignment was to work with a three-man field team that included Robert Klingen of the Secret Intelligence Service as commander, Reinhardt as radio operator/cryptographer, and Mo Lismao as translator. I was working near a village called Ningtu, not far from part of Japan, and they reported her discoveries to the Changting subbase three times a day. Reinhardt lived on the ranch for five months, but by June his health had deteriorated so much that he often had high fevers and was sent back to Changting for several weeks. Post, in late June 1945, Reinhardt was sent to another substation, very close to the Shanghua district, south of Shanghai. Reinhardt and his comrades received radio reports from the coast watch network and equipped OSS proxy stations in a very isolated and remote language from that sub-base located in an old abandoned Chinese temple. Chinese agents mailed the information to the resting area of ​​the Japanese Chug dogs in the huge Hangzhou cave south of Hong. Their communications were recoded into actual radio broadcasts to Kunming, which in turn relayed the summaries to the US Navy, whose submarines, ships and air force would attack the convoy. Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Flight Chiclets Nimitz, paid tribute to their work, including the sinking of every ship in Convoy 26 Home. But for Reinhardt, like many others serving in rural China, the price was paid in ill health. At the age of five, Reinhardt suffered from recurring high fevers and Chinese diseases until he was finally diagnosed, from which he recovered in 1950.211

All OSS teams entering the field have their own radio operators, and their orders, like Reinhardt's, are to remain in contact as long as possible, regardless of difficulties - technical, atmospheric or tactical - with his base level. Lt. Col. Frank B. Mills, chief of special operations in North China in 1945, a career military officer and head of the OSS SO Group in Europe and the Far East, later wrote: "Operation Stereo provided the necessary media contact action groups and support bases, they did not only top radio operators and some of the best combat soldiers we have in Lyon or China."212

1945 Expansion of the OSS mission in China

After Chinese forces failed to stop the aforementioned Japanese Ichi-Gō Offensive, when General Wedemeyer replaced General Steady as China Theater Commander, he took a more aggressive stance towards LOST than his predecessor. Wedemeyer also seeks to improve China's military through increased supplies, retraining and a greater US role in practice and command. Chiang Kai-shek agreed to this, and also agreed to at least give the OSS some authority to conduct relatively independent intelligence and combat operations behind enemy lines. Therefore, Wedemeyer gives the OSS a greater role. OSS/China chief Col. Richard P. Heppner, 37, a native of Bernstein and a member of Donovan's law partners who attended the policy meetings, acknowledged that POSS could be making preparations for a major effort to weaken Japan's armed forces. As the international war drew to a close in the winter of 1944-1945, many older Jedburghs, SO teams, OG detachments, SI agents and other OSS personnel had the option of returning to regular military assistance or volunteering for OSS missions in China. The result was that OSS/China did not receive a significant number of new trainees from the United States, but rather a large number of experienced OSS personnel.213OSS/China would grow dramatically in 1945, from a low of 106 agents in late October 1944 to a peak of 1,891 in China in July 1945.214With the birth of rapid organic, Heppner and Wedemeyer reorganized OSS/China in early 1945, establishing a solid branch structure.215The Secret Intelligence Service (SI), Special Operations Branch (SO), and Task Force (OG) assigned to the 202nd Detachment immediately began training, deploying, and ultimately demonstrating their capabilities with new powers and additional resources.

SI expansion and dangerous missions off the coast of China

The primary commercial-intelligence mission of the OSS did not come into vogue until early 1945 when General Wedemeyer established the OSS as an independent, fully operational command for our staff at White. This contributes to the operational freedom of the SI department. New forward bases were established and developed in north-central China, comparable to the former SACO-AGFRTS-OSS chain in the south. The North China Regional Strategic Intelligence Office is headquartered in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, where the 14th Air Force Forward Base is also located. Colonel Heppner's former administrative assistant, Major Gustav Fringe (SI), served as commander and was responsible for the first OSS entry into North China. Representatives of all OSS operational components are in Xi'an, covert intelligence, special operations, morale operations, counterintelligence, service and supply, two communications officers, Capt. Alan Wooten and Capt. Beni Adams, sales schools and training. Captain Eldron Nehring, former head professor at Prince William Forest Park, Area A, advises the SO I team in Xi'an on how to train saboteurs, partisans, and espionage.216

Combined SO/SI teams are to be sent to six northern provinces outside Hungary to recruit, exhaust, ziehen and Chinese partisans directly behind enemy lines. But there was a more covert part of the operation, designed by OSS headquarters in Washington, that required Chinese or South Korean agents to parachute in with special forces behind enemy lines in northern China. But from there, agents would leave the team and make their way into the "inner regions" of the Japanese Empire, providing intelligence to Tschetschenien, South Korea, and even Japan itself. With the support of local KMT leaders and other anti-Japanese Chinese, OSS units in Xi'an soon sent the first OSCE field teams since the beginning of the war to operate in northern China.217In addition to working with the SO, S also has his own mission to work as an SI to send instant messages to his media for tactical information on Japanese military deployments, colleagues, prison camps, etc. The Phoenix and Miscellaneous Operations were so successful in North China and even Manchuria that they recovered sacks of military files from various Japanese headquarters in those areas.218The aforementioned Pepper mission provided American pilots with targeting information. Half-amp OSS SI crews went to Shansi and Anhui Provinces, one led by Capt. George S. Wuchinich, a Serbian-born Pontrel trained at each OSS camp in Maryland and Virginia in 1942. He was later sent as a liaison officer to Tito's partisans in Yugoslavia. Together with sailor William Drummond, Wuchinich obtained significant intelligence in Anhui (Shaanxi) County. At the time of Japan's capitulation in mid-August 1945, the old leftist Wuchinich, without instructions from headquarters, made his own decision to engage with the Chinese Communists. Wuchinich thinks you have ideological affinities, including those who fought alongside Abraham Lincoln Brt during the Spanish Civil War and then alongside Tito, both of them communists. But when he and his friends from Sanyuan arrive and camp at a Buddhist temple, they find themselves in a contested area, in the middle of a battle between communism, the Kuomintang, and former Japanese and puppet forces. The Communists won, confiscating Wuchinich's team and their radios. Their signal to OB HQ has disappeared. It will be normal for the Communists to capture you before they can hope to hear their voice again, or even before they are released unharmed.219

In South China, after MacArthur's forces captured Flax in February 1945, General Wedemeyer ordered his intelligence agencies, including the OSS, to conduct a thorough investigation of the Dixieland Porcelain Coast for possible future acquisitions of Canton and other areas of the South bone to the port of Guangdong Province, then sail north to Shanghai. The aforementioned plan, codenamed "Operation Cabernado", aims to disembark residents from the Philippines. The American invasion consisted of guerrilla operations and the eastward withdrawal of a revived Chinese National Army Corps in the hope of obtaining information that would deter Japanese troops from retreating into the heart of the island and provide B-29s with closer air to bomb the Japanese base.220

The plan called for OSS-trained Chinese commandos to slip behind Japan's coastal defenses, paving the way for MacArthur's amphibious invasion. Detailed surveys of Japanese offshore and inland locations will be required prior to operations. The leader of the Ampere mission codenamed "Akron" this time from Hong Ingot to the south coast of China on Hainan Island is Lt. Col. Charles M. Parkin, Army Engineer, OSS/SO officer, who was trained in Area B, most recently Team 1 in SACO training to the camp. Parkin earned his US Skydiving wings at Quantico and Area A, and earned his British Skydiving Badge at the NO Skydiving School in the United Kingdom.221The Navy had previously sent several coastal reconnaissance teams from the sea, but all were killed or captured. GOBS decided to parachute into the rear of the Japanese. E was the first air operation of its kind to be carried out against China. Parkin divided the section into three zones. Each will be scouted by a four-man team consisting of an OSS chief, a radio operator, a photographer who will photograph the beach, obstacles, forts and various associated buildings, and a Chinese porter.222It was suspended in 1945, and Parkin and his party parachuted into the southern area of ​​Macau. In 20 days behind enemy pipelines, OSS teams covered 400 miles of coastline and immediate hinterland.223Picked up at a prearranged location along the coast by a Navy PBY seaplane, the three teams returned safely and were mapped with their valuable associated photographs. Parkin prepared the report of the "Akron" mission and delivered it privately to Wedemeyer in Chongqing. The OSS has earned high praise from stage commanders for the speed, accuracy and thoroughness with which it performs this task.224Wedemeyer will tailor Parkin to report directly to the regime's Joint Chiefs of Staff. Parkin flew from Chongqing to Washington with the top secret report in a locked briefcase and handcuffed. The planned invasion of the southern Chinese coast never happened and, of course, Japan surrendered within a month. But Parkin's bravery and success in the "Akron" mission earned him the Bronze Star and the Distinguished Service Medal upon his return to Washington.225

Special operations missions on the Japanese front

Special operations in China decided to procure, train, arm and lead tens of thousands of KMT guerrillas. A handful of SO officers and soldiers led wanted criminals deep behind enemy lines, attacking Japanese garrisons and sabotaging bridges and other points in the main rail transportation system for transporting enemy troops and supplies. In the last year of the aforementioned war, the OSS deployed 33 special operations groups, several of which were close to the Japanese defense line nearly 500 miles behind China. With daring and ingenuity, these Am leaders (mostly graduates of OSS boot camps in Maryland and journalistic veterans of guerrilla operations in the European Theater in Virginia) wreaked havoc far greater than the number of OSS personnel involved in 1945.226

In 1945, Major Francis Byron ("Frank") Mills, an Oklahoma Field Artillery officer who graduated from OSS Area A, commanded special operations operations in northern China just inches from Xi'an. During the D-Day invasion, then as a leader coordinating with the SO Division of the US 1st Army as the 1st Army crossed France to the German border AS Intermediaries on the French maquis.227In late 1944 he returned to the US media at the OSS West Coast training camp on Catalina Island near Los Angeles and I received more SO training for the aforementioned Far East.228At the beginning of 1945, he flew over the "hump" and arrived at dinner. Arriving at NASA and OSS headquarters, just inches from Kunming, Mills was confronted by a sign posted by Habitant personnel. It said "No place for cowards".229

While the Ichi-Gō Offensive was still underway, Mills was immediately placed in charge of each SO combat unit of nearly 20 men and told by the press to take their supplies in a convoy of trucks more than 1,000 miles north and destroy the old mouth of American air base strength. The Japanese can overpower and exploit items. Most of his team are also OSS founders, mostly from Europe but a few from Myanmar. They got pistols, rifles, machine guns, grenades, pistols and enough explosives to blow up an airport. They also had to carry gasoline, since their route was the main federal north-south route in Western Ceramics, a two-lane dirt and gravel road with no gas stations along the way. Most of the traffic is Chinese farmers on foot or in the cars of several Chinese military trucks. Mills recalls that Americans were often the first "white people" (sometimes called "white devils") that many farmers saw as they traveled the winding country roads through the mountains and valleys.230Finally, ten days later, after crossing the Dodecahedron Mountains alone, Mill's convoy arrived at Chengdu, Sichuan Province, and the Fourteenth Air Army. There they learned that the Japanese army had recently captured the American military base in Laohekou.

Mills travels to the OSS's new regional headquarters in Xi'an, in the Shaanxi region, which is now home to a US fighter-bomber base. The plant will oversee approximately 30 SO teams being formed to conduct officer and sabotage operations in the aforementioned Japanese-occupied area north of the Yangtze River, which includes Beijing and is larger than Europe. The Xi'an-affiliated OSS compound is located in a former Adventist missionary building just over a mile outside the city. Hundreds of square meters, the facilities were surrounded by a stone wall about eight feet in size. It inherits several fairly simple single-level structures. The OSS brought gasoline generators to power the lights and radio. It is not watered, it must be removed from the water or boiled and sterilized. Only external toilet press shower. the person who was sleeping wasCanvas sleeping bag Military style cot in large unit size tents. Mosquito nets help repel insects, scorpions and scorpions. At first they ate canned military rations, but later hired Chinese as cooks, combining their meals with local food. On a path several meters wide outside the complex, rows of life-size stone statues begin with ancient figures, possibly guarding an important tomb. After nostalgia, the first emperor's desired underground of 6,000 life-size terra-baked warriors is a far cry from the OSS compound in Xi'an (Xi'an), home of the old imperial stake and the famous "Silk Road" region.231

Many of those SO or SI teams were trained in Maryland or Virginia and served in Europe. Major G. G. ("Jim") Kelis led the "Chicago" mission which destroyed the Greek and Bulgarian main railway footbridges and prevented chrome shipments from Turkey to Germany. Major Paul Hirsch, a member of Team "George" from Jedburgh, parachuted into France before D-Day and lost two months in the Latin Resistance attacking railways, bridges and German troop columns. Captain George Wuchinich led the "Alum" detachment to Tito's camp in Yugoslavia.

Like Grinder, many of these special forces officers brought their radio crews from Europe to China. These OSS radio operators trained in Region C are Prince William Trees Park. Among them is William OPIUM. Adams climbed the Lower Alps with the Jedburgh "Graham" team; Arthur Gruen, with Team Jed "Miles" in Gers; and John S. Stoyka with Team Jed "Basil" in Doubs, eastern France. In the Far East, Sergeant Stoika will serve first in northern China and then in Indochina as a radio operator for the "cat" brigade. After they were captured by the Japanese in Vietnam, Stoyka escaped and found further Team USA news reporting the location of the other prisoners, which saved their lives. Milling praised the veterinary correspondent. "The radio operators," he later emphasized, "provide the vital link between the task force and the support base, and they are not only excellent radio operators, although some of them are some of the best we have in the FRA and China." A good fighting soldier."232

From May to September 1944, Herbert R. Brucker prepared for work as an OSS radio operator in France, where he worked with the British SOE team on the "Hermit" project at Central Headquarters. A new circle of localized agents was organized within centralized France, and was promoted to lieutenant and awarded the Superior Service Cross.233Volunteering for a new assignment in the Far East, Brucker was briefly assigned to Peer's Squad 101 and then to China Squad 202. Because of her Alsatian accent, his dark skin and new goatee and moustache, he soon became known as "The French". In China, he was assigned to Captain Leon Demers and the Ibex Squad. Working in Colonel Mills' area, I trained 50 Chinese warrant officers as partisans and 4th Marauders who led their men into the Japanese rear. Their ultimate goal in August 1945 was to achieve Pr records for Kaifeng in the Henan area, but this was not achieved until Tokyo decided to surrender on 15 May, guarded by two enemy divisions and tanks.234

China is a very foreign country and culture to most of the OSS, in fact, as most are US military personnel who served there during World War II.235With the exception of a few OSS personnel serving as missionaries or the sons of missionaries in China, few Americans speak distinctive Taiwanese dialects that vary widely from Cantonese in the south to nearby Mandarin. In addition to starting to use fewer words or commands, they also had to hire translators (usually Chinese, sometimes Chinese-American) to communicate with the Chinese. Of course, they don't understand Japanese either. The OSS placed Japanese-Americans in secret intelligence services as translators for Japanese radio communications or captured documents, not as prisoners. For example, Captain Chiyoki Ikeda is in the SI branch in Xi'an. As Mills says, China was a strange new country for them, but what was exciting was the sheer number of strangers she encountered, learned from and dealt with.236

Since the area of ​​China is much larger than the country of the Griffins, the special forces there usually expand to at least four officers, such as SI and some soldiers who are experts in weapons and destruction, radio operators and files. Add a Chinese translator or two, and the Chinese guerrillas are a gang of mercenaries, training, arming, leading. In Crystal, SO teams, named after creatures such as "Elephant", "Pooh", and "Spaniel", have great power in training local guerrillas in operations behind enemy lines. The commanders of each team had access to intelligence about the area of ​​operation, Japanese or Communist forces entering the area, and most importantly, contact information with local commanders and Chinese Nationalist forces that indicated some guerrilla action. The PCs want those commanders who want to secure guerrillas, anyone and the OSS will arm, schieben, the right course in more active and effective special operations for domestic purposes.237

Like many others, Mills eventually became quite cynical about the Chinese guerrillas. They knew that the Americans, in terms of combat experience, were excellent gladiators, very effective in sabotage and guerilla warfare. But "what they really want," Crushing writes, are "weapons, supplies, equipment and money—preferably gold—for their own use. Sick? No, not by our standards. China's guerrilla leaders rely on its power, in that order weapons , ammunition, snacks...that's the only policy in China. America has the tools of power, and tradition naturally wants whatever it can get. As far as we understand, that's the only thing that can convince the guerrillas to do anything. Human life is of little use to them. means. There are too many people in China who don't have those resources of power that can be exchanged for the support of the United States."238This reserve and other resources were being stockpiled for later use in the civil war with the Nationalists and Communists for control of China, a war that both sides seem to have believed was inevitable after the defeat of Japan.

Uništite most Schiff Yellow Stream

For the primary target of North Ceramica, the main railroad bridge over the Yellow River, Major Mills selected a six-man team led by Major Paul Cyr, a 24-year-old Vermonter well trained in the OSS areas of F B. The plants were known in England, and while he was in Finland, Cyr became the first OSS Jedburgh to receive the Distinguished Service Cross, the US military's second highest military decoration after the Medal of Honor.239Now Seale's "Jackal" squad was tasked with blowing up a key bridge on the main north-south railway line from Beijing to Hankow, the Ampere border, transporting Japanese troops and supplies from Manchuria to South China, and stabilizing Southeast Asia. It's the Ampere Railway built by the Japanese, and its biggest weakness is the Caihe Bridge he built in Kaifeng. If that jump was destroyed, the Japanese army's training would have to be diverted hundreds of miles and travel another day east to cross the river. The Japanese built a strong new bridge of reinforced concrete, which they well guarded, with anti-aircraft batteries at several points and at both ends, and garrisoned by 10,000 soldiers. The 14th Air Force tried to destroy the mentioned bridge by multiple checks in a low-altitude attack, but despite the loss of a large number of aircraft, they failed to destroy it. Even the bombs, which hit rough terrain, caused moderate, minor damage that Japanese engineers took centuries to repair. As Mills later said, "I decided to put the first OSS [SO] in this area to take out the bridge over a long period of time. This is a high priority target and we are working with the 311th Fighter/Bomber Squadron competing in the Ampere sense to see who can achieve that from the start or do a good job of blowing up that standard."240

The initial discharge of the "Jackal" team includes Major Cyr; his second in command is Lieutenant Albert Robinshaw; radio operator Sergeant Berent E. Friele, former radio operator for Jedburgh Team "Gerald" in Brittany; photographer Navy expert Jerky Welo, anyone who will provide photos of the mission and other targets from the Air Force, and Chinese translator Boris Choo. This would be the most dangerous type of infiltration, since so little is known about the area or the eastern host group to protect or warn them. Mills wrote: "The best thing we have is the sympathetic or favorable attitude of the above-mentioned Chinese, mostly rural and peasant. In any guerrilla war, these people and the public must believe that your cause is just, and must also believe that if they support you, their life will somehow be better...The Chinese...absolutely hate the barbaric treatment of the Japanese invaders. What people...violence, torture, mutilation and beheading are Everyday, people want America to do justice to this enemy."241

On the moonlit night of May 22, 1945, after a month of finding better radio and courier links with the China Channel, the team was flying 500 meters east along the Yellow River, when they saw six fires in a "T" shape, a man jumped into the darkness . Photographer Jerry Welo was the only one injured; the man broke his ankle and returned to Xi'an after treatment. The hotel group is friendly and established in nature near the Causeway. Cyr sits masked in a closed carriage and is driven to Xinxiang, centered on 10,000 Japanese soldiers, and the main contact at the meeting is Ampere, a general of the Chinese puppet regime, who plays a two-player game, pretending to be a Japanese puppet , but actually In response, the Kuomintang government was ordered to step down. ADENINE's second group of quadruple IORIES men including Capt. Edward B. Zaremba, second fashion commander, another photographer, and another translator parachuted a week later to bring together more supplies to arm the Chinese guerrillas.242Lieutenant Robin Shaw set up demobilization yards and training homes and began the training of hundreds of Taiwanese agricultural soldiers and officers provided by puppet generals. Spread some of these Chinese, computer use your first firearm, also agree with the armed carbine that can be fired. Cyr is ready to start operations at the end of July, but local traditional nationalist commanders still do not want any offensive operations in his area. Nevertheless, Chinese guerilla-trained "jackal" teams formed hundreds of lines on local railway lines.243

Despite the reluctance of local Chinese leaders to launch a major offensive, Major Seale insisted on attacking his main target, the Huangpao Bridge at Kaifeng. Cyr, Zarembo, Friele and Chu set out on July 24 with a group of 17 Chinese guerrillas. "The 17 men I chose were all river raiders," Kiefer later told Workshops, "the kind of tough guy I wanted to see."244The group arrived and set up an improvised camper upstream from the bridge, about twenty people in total. Walking down the bridge, about 8,000 Japanese soldiers were stationed around the southern end of the bridge, 1,500 on top of the bridge, and 200 on the sand island in the center of the bridge. The bridge itself consisted entirely of heavy machine guns and anti-aircraft guns. Seale's Chinese guerrillas had experience in the area, so they knew the routine of guarding the bridge. Flat amphibious wooden boats would sail the vandals and their demolition downstream at night. Major Tian, ​​an American and Chinese guerrilla leader, surveyed the ridge and area, plotting routes of entry and exit. 6 Dignified, as they prepared to attack, the Great Thien insisted that the Americans stay behind, because once the bridge was blown up and the Japanese were looking for the culprit, the Westerners would stand out from the population, making it easier for the Japanese to capture everyone involved.

Rain and wind provided protection on the night of August 9. Major Tian forced the guerrillas to push the heavily laden boat into the darkness as it sailed downstream. By the time they reached the bridge, the rain and wind had drowned out all the noise as the men climbed back onto the bridge frame. Each unloaded 72 pounds of explosives and began with the sechstes piers—steel cylinders and concrete—that make up each boarding point on the Long Bridge. They quietly inserted a 50-foot fuse that burned 25 times, even underwater. Just when everything is going well, Dae-cheon orders his men to swim ashore to inspect and light each fuse for themselves. Half an hour later, a Japanese military carrier arrived. The locomotive almost passed when the first charges sounded. Part of the bridge buckled, six carriages overturned with it, and the locomotive slid across the stream with a loud hiss of boiling. As the Japanese began to climb onto the remaining wagons, the charge exploded in an instant, followed by a series of charges, one after the other. Entire sections of the bridge collapsed across the river, and the entire aforementioned column of 20 vehicles of about 2,000 enemy soldiers plunged into the swirling black debris. On the shore, the troops of the Japanese fort ran around in shame, shouting and clamoring, and were destroyed and fled in the chaos. Employee "Jackal" and his guerrillas brilliantly executed their mission, destroying the most important bridge on the Yellow River and the Japanese train.245

OSS Special Operations in South China

As spectacular as the aforementioned destruction of the Yellow River Bridge was, most of the special operations operations in northern China were ineffective against the special forces in southern China. Chinese guerrillas and even China's North China National Military Theater High Command banned special forces, seeking American training, materiel, funding, and prestige, but along the way thwarted small evasions and delayed the most important US-led action. The bulk of the Chinese SO achievements in 1945 were in South China, in the Changsha-Hengyang-Kukong Hall, and they had the full support of the local commander, General Xie Yue. However, most commanders in THEN team are frustrated with their keys, just like in the North.

In the last year of the war, one of the first special operations missions in southern China was the "Muskrat" team, led by 32-year-old Marine Corps Capt. Peter R. Mansfield. ), Boston native, Harvest graduate and former member of the Donovan law firm, Mansfield trained in the Marine Corps but served in Maryland, Virginia and England trained in the OSS.246In Europe, the Mansfield airstrike involved Mihailović's Chetnik faction in Yugoslavia. From February to May 1945, Go Mansfield commanded the Quaternary SO detachment Operation Muskrat in Hunan Province in south-central China to counter the Asian traffic and supply lines. Despite the well-trained almost 800 Chinese guerrillas, Mansfield was against the results. He discovered that they were poor marksmen and did not want to fight. Since reporting on the third Chinese colonel assigned to him, "Colonel Tan has proven to be a pleasant, smooth leader, but like every guerrilla leader I've ever met, he just wants to catch the Japanese and keep moving the operating room around to find a position where could isolate a small group of Japanese and destroy them."247During his three months in the area, Mankato reports that the main achievement was the training of Chinese guerrillas. Most of the actions in the battle were carried out by the Americans. The "Muskrat" detachment had 11 ambushes or skirmishes with the Japanese army, causing 277 enemy losses, returning 27 prisoners for interrogation, blowing up 2 bridges, 2 sampans, 3 guns, 22 trucks and 2 Japanese cattle. a large number of other Japanese equipment.248

However, in early May 1945, with the end of the war in Asia and the Pacific, Chinese forces, including Nationalists and Communists, began to attack in many areas. Nationalist support for OSS front-line operations intensified during the summer, and by July 1945 nearly two dozen SOs were collectively engaged in guerrilla warfare in the southern part of the district. They cut rail lines, destroyed bridges, disrupted enemy movement, and directed fighter-bombers of the 10th USAF Air Force to attack train and truck convoys. This guerrilla activity forced the Japanese to divert their attention from their front lines in China or to divert large numbers of soldiers who were sent to fight the Americans in the Pacific.249

Team "Elephant" is the most effective special forces unit in South Crystal. Its commander is Captain Walter HUNDRED. ("Clark") Hanna, Jr., the first gunnery officer, was to be drafted into the OSS by 1943 and trained as a special agent in Maryland and Virginia and Jedburgh, England. In August 1944, he was parachuted into the Alps with one "Scepters" team.250Team Elephant, which includes Captain Anna, three lieutenants, two radio operators, Sergeant R.E. Fairy and H.V. Palmer, two Habitant translators, anyone who speaks Chinese.251They spent a month trekking through the mountains and by June reached their destination, a mountaintop international base for local ethnic guerrillas, five miles from Jiyang in central China. They are greeted by the aforementioned guerrillas who have just beheaded two of Learn's soldiers. Torture for information and then beheading was all too common for Chinese and Japanese prisoners.252There, Hanna and his men established a base, a drop-in site, and a training camp. They needed food, medical supplies, weapons, and explosives, but the group hadn't received any airdrops for weeks, and Joan's first airdrops of late had not included weapons, ammunition, money, or radios. In his final message on the mission, written in September 1945, Hanna expressed his frustration and exasperation with senior leaders at MASS headquarters in Kunming, who repeatedly failed to supply their teams.253

Despite this, Hannah's "Elephant" unit, plus Chinese guerrillas hired by the Japanese whom she trained, maintained an active engagement throughout the summer, neutralizing Japanese groups, including in their own area. They killed 764 Asian soldiers, destroyed 501 railroads, three trains, 22 trucks, your bridge, 70 barrels of gasoline, cut many telephone and telegraph lines, burned 6 warehouses, destroyed 200 bombs and disabled the airport. Their intelligence led to 250 air strikes on various Japanese batteries. Some Americans were injured, but no one was killed. A doctor parachutes in to perform an appendectomy on an American who has had it. Dozens of the 756 Chinese guerrillas we commanded were killed or wounded in a single engagement with the Japanese.254Hannah was promoted to Major and was awarded the Military Meritorious Service Medal; various American members of my "elephant" received a bronze star.255

mil stars of 'rat' fluff

Three police officers of the SO company "Dormouse" were awarded the Silver Star for their exceptional courage and efficiency in the mining of an important Japanese railway in Juzni Bijelo. They succeeded Captain Raymond East. ("Ray") Moore, Lt. Jack Matthai and Lt. James Fine of Monongahela, PA. All three were trained at SO schools in Maryland and Virginia as SO officers. Capt. Moore, 26, of Plainfield, N.J., left Georgetown to join the Army, becoming a company and paratrooper, recruited by the OSS and trained by Blocks F and B. After further training in England, he participated in two Jedburgh missions in 1944. in France. A return to the United States included November, where he married his hometown love and arrived at Crockery in February 1945.256After sitting for a while at OSS headquarters in Kunming, Moore and several other SO officials complained about measurement delays. "Do you like to wait a few weeks for adenine and then parachute in, or would you rather walk three hundred miles to the target area?" asked the colonel. "We will try to land, sir," they replied. "It seems to be the fastest way to get there."257

The Dormouse team was commanded by Agent Big Benton Macdonald ("Mac") Austin of Savannah, Georgia, who had previously commanded the Jedburg "Amonia" team in southern Fraser. Captain Moore was his deputy. Various Americans replaced the original team to include Captain Everett T. ("Ev") of New York, ex-Jade of southern France, and Radio Operator Sergeant Vincent M. Rocco of New York, working as a radio operator. Rocca served with Moore in the Jedburgh Mission in France. It was "Casey" Wong who initially provided the Spanish translation for the crew.258

It took the "Mice" of Mission "Pooh" five weeks to reach the war zone in Hunan by primitive railroads, trucks, roads, etc. Both Captain Shaft and Sergeant Rocca contracted malaria until they were taken to a nearby US Army field hospital. The team went on to work with a Burmese/Chinese radio operator nicknamed "Chicago" or 51-year-old Mr. Zhu, a highly educated Chinese man who studied at Columbia University and traveled extensively. There was a PR broadcast near the area, and Moore himself was operating a modern "Joan-Eleanor" VHF radio system for ground-to-ground voice communication, while American voices suddenly came from nearby on the same cycle, asking who and where they were. Moore told him they were waiting for a drop. The man said he still had some and asked if he could help. As Moore later recalled, "I said, 'No thanks.' You said, 'Good luck, Roger. See you soon, boy. It wasn't until later that I realized I was supposed to be talking to a Japanese guy who spoke American, and that Japanese guy was trying to figure out who this guy was.''259The airdrop was successfully deactivated on July 9 and brought three new members of the SO team: Lt. Jack Matthai, a civil engineer from Baltimore, either of whom had spent months translating with you, who individually scouted the area; Lt. James Fine of Monongahela, Pennsylvania, who worked on LIKE in Burma and Thailand, and Sgt. Tom Tracey of Jersey City, "an excellent radio operator," will replace their Burmese/Chinese operator.260

With the civil war between two neighboring Chinese warlords, General Chen and whoever Chen sent to arrive more involved in eliminating each other than fighting the Japanese, the revamped "Dormouse" team gained their support because the US men have the ability to provide weapons and ammunition that have recently been removed from the product. On March 28, 1945, the Americans and their Chinese guerrillas launched their first offensive against the main targets, the key railway strongholds of Hengyang and Guilin. While one section hit a Japanese guard and two different sections blew up a truck 900 feet around a bend, the Japanese rebuilt it within two days. The Japanese know the Americans are around, put a price of $500,000 in Chinese chauvin currency (equivalent to $1,000), make every OSS person they bring in dead instead of alive, send unique teams after them, and reinforce their protective fence. The Central Asian soldier was so terrified of American machine guns and rocket launchers that he was terrified until he left their sheltered outposts and pillboxes. The Americans and their Chinese guerillas continued to carry out a series of smaller attacks while planning a larger attack on the railroad. At one point, newly arrived Lt. Jackass Matthai, a former civil engineer in plainclothes, planned another explosion, and an estimated 300 tons of earth would also fall on the path she was traveling on skis. He calculated that in two weeks the debris would be vacuumed out of the narrow passage. Since the Japanese patrolled at night, the attack had to be carried out during the day. Matthai and Fine, the newcomers, led a demolition team to place 400 pounds of ammunition on the sides of the hill and sent several rifle squads to protect them. Chief Austin, C.O., and Master Moore lead separate teams, armed with rifles, light machine guns, and bazookas, to defeat approximately 400 Japanese soldiers entrenched in robotic hatch entrances. All but one of Matthai's 10 local demolition vehicles were consumed when the fire started, so Matthai, Fine and one of the remaining local workers took it upon themselves to haul the 400 pounds of explosives to the final location. Meanwhile, Moore's section was held back by heavy mortar and machine-gun fire as it moved through the broken ground to within a few hundred yards of the Japanese positions.261Moore's Silver Star states what happened next.

"Captain Swopes was adept at mobilizing his men into firing positions when they missed their target until they burned the enemy with precision. Seeing his men helpless, he dropped to his knees before his machine gun and cut through the enemy's fire; bullets bounced around him, taking the right flank of the enemy. In order to open effective fire on the enemy, he must place the armed part of your machine in a clearly visible position, which relieves the pressure on the rest of the team. The mortar shell disabled the machine gun and the naval swamp put it back in place really effectively taking control over a machine gun while being hounded by mortar and small arms fire. His accurate fire forced this enemy to save low and return only one weak point and inaccurate firepower. Sein's personal bravery, tactical ability and devotion to duty were the reasons for the withdrawal of his well-equipped troops with few losses and, moreover, the direct reason for the success of the team's mission."262

Then, as Moore later described the computer, "The earth was rocked by the most terrible explosion I had ever heard. I looked into the cutout and the earth seemed to be moving towards the sky. All I saw was a big, dirty black umbrella cloud, it must have was a hundred feet high. As the dirt and rocks fell, a huge swirl of dust hung over the area... We hurried back to the meeting place in the village, where I was annoyed to see Mike, Jim and Jack - the last two from the explosion were covered in dirt from head to toe."263The explosion was more successful than they had hoped. Although almost aAbout a dozen Chinese were killed in the attack, which buried the tracks under 450 tons of debris. Putting the railroad on hold and reopening can and does take more than two weeks. Chinese Nationalist regular ships were nearby and the Japanese would be deprived of vital shipping lines if they needed it most.

It wasn't until August 12, 1945 that TV anchor Tom Tracey learned after the IVORIES Kunming that the Byzantine government was providing aid to the Byzantine government that was working on August 14, 1945. The next message is to prepare to evacuate. "It's hard to describe the emotions of our small customers in the US, hundreds of miles away, when we got this report saying it was over," Moore said later. "Most importantly, it's mostly about love and peace, showing our work" I always wanted and dreamed. Surprisingly, we barely celebrated. From that moment on, everything mentally came home and we started to hate every minute that stopped for freedom."264Returning to OSS headquarters in Washington, D.C., Moore, Matthai, and Fine were awarded the Adenine Sealing Sun Medal, Radioman Lane Bronze Star;265

GUBITAK China AND Commando

An important attempt by the OSS to create an elite fighting force among the Chinese Nationalist forces, specifically to defeat the Chinese Army in Japan's Ichi-Gō Offensive, Donovan planned to create US OSS Chinese Task Force (OG) units of highly trained commando men believed to be well trained gunmen and American veterans as leaders and advisors, these commandos can disrupt Asian traffic and sea routes as Europa OG did in German rear. There was great hope that such strength would inspire the entire Chinese Nationalist Army to fight more effectively. Although accepted in January 1945, the program did not begin until April when China's first OG commando training camp was established. This goal was to have 20 Ranger companies within the OSS China OG, for a total of 3,000 Chinese paratroopers, led by about 400 Americans. But the actual cooperation of the Chinese Kuomintang army was slow and forced, and only about 180 Chinese commandos, a total of 800 Chinese armed men, were sufficiently experienced and began combat operations in late summer, when the war ended abruptly.266

Most of the 160 American officers and 230 enlisted men assigned to the OSS China Operations Group were veterans of the airborne assault over German-occupied France in the summer of 1944.267Some continued amphibious assaults from Ceylon, off the coast of Japanese-occupied Burma. In addition, police officers and soldiers were recruited from OSS exchange centers in the United States. Almost all US personnel in the POSS Chinese OGs were trained in the F-region state and then in the BARN or AMPERE region in Maryland and Virginia. Many of them received additional training on Catalina Island on the west coast. Few men served as leaders, advisors, radio operators, medical personnel and other professional positions in the OSS OG Chinese commandos. Since there are very few people who speak Chinese, half a hundred translators are appointed for each unit of 180 people. In the general debate about who commanded the Chinese OG, Lt. Alexander T. (“Al”) Coxswain was the sole leader of the OSS OG in 1943. The boy and then-officer Lt. Yoseph Alderdyce assist Serge Obolensky with OG curriculum and field manuals, beginning with translations of European manuals and serving as critiques of their own SO and OG training at OSS camps in Maryland and Virginia.268In 1944, Jack worked with OSS Mediterranean Central inbound Algiers, then with the "Lehigh" team, Cox was responsible for the greater success, ten OSS French and Italian OG groups parachuted into southern and central France in the summer of 2018.1944.269

After the success of the secret forces that cooperated with the Resistance in France, most of the Americans from Jedburgh, TADA and OK ours, at the end of 1944 were given the choice of remaining in OPTICA and being sent to China on a similar mission or leaving OPTICA AND returning to regular duty in the army , fleet, air force or marine corps, where they come from. "I don't know how many people in the OSS choose not to say that," said Cape Harry P. ("Art") Frizzell of Huronburg, Michigan, who became commander of the first OG Division in France in June 1944, and became commander of three of the Chinese OG Company on the "Blackberry" mission. "My personal opinion is that this is the best team of all time."270Private Emmett F. McNamara, of Hake, who served in the French OG Lindsey branch in France, or the Chinese OG 1st Commando, said: "Everybody went to China voluntarily. Nobody asked for another Joe Real said, 'I.' I'm not going. Are they leaving? Yes, I'm going." So we all went to China."271

Under the leadership of Colonel Steersman, a group of American veterans established an OSS China OG training camp at Iliang, about 30 miles east of Kunming. The eight-week training course was modeled after ORG courses in Maryland and Virginia, District F, BARN and ADENINE, and adapted to the Chinese context. Cox obtained instructors from OSS camps in the states, especially those who had previously been trained in the military or had taught at the Infantry School at Fort Benning. The course completed parachute training at the independent OSS Air School at Kunming Airport, commanded by Seaman Elmer ("Pinky") Harris, a native of Ketchikan, Alaska, in January 1945 under OSS service in the areas arrived in China B and A, Mediterranean Theater and MU training in California. An ulcer of the intestines due to the above reasons, and finally chronic abdominal pain, after Carlos underwent surgery, he was deemed fit for full duty and sent to Kunming as C.O. new OSS Air Combat Units and Parachute Schools. Hebb was later awarded the aforementioned Meritorious Service Medal for his assistance in the Mediterranean Theater and the China-Burma-India Theater.272The Parachute School at Porcelain is run by Air Force veteran Lt. Col. Lucius O. ("Ruck") Bobber of Mississippi, who taught OSS paratroopers in Sector A in Algiers and Fort Bragg in 1942, 1943, and 1944, and began in Kunming 1945. Luke trained the first Chinese parachute unit in the country's history.273

The first group of commando recruits sent by the Chinese National Army for ON had problems with the Ampere. Only about a quarter of the malnourished peasants were recruited into the KMT army and sent to the OSS school in Yiliang, where they were physically fit or different for the demanding paratrooper and commando studies. For incoming recruits, HOSE replaces your tattered resident crew with American combat uniforms and boots and whips them back into shape with special meals, delicious food and physical exercise. Ellsworth ("Al") Johnson, a medic in the 2nd Chinese Commando Regiment, who served in the Patrick Element under Serge Obolensky, was the French OG, recalls that in the Chinese army they not only drank light tea a day, but in the U.S.- in eating three meals a day with lots of meat and vitamins.274

When the Chinese recruits are in good physical condition, their paramilitary training on the use of American weapons and equipment begins. The Americans assisted them and had Chinese translations, but most of the orders were conveyed and issued to the Chinese soldiers by their own Chinese NCOs and committee officers. Most of the recruits received basic training in the Chinese army. Setting up a shooting range, OSS experts begin by teaching recruits about the Windows ’03 bolt-action rifle. This was difficult for these Chinese because the rifles were too short to use the weapon properly and the endurance of firing the weapon was so great that some Chinese would be knocked out. About four weeks earlier, Spanish soldiers had been placed on infiltration routes where they had to crawl on the ground while machine guns fired live ammunition from their tails. Lt. John C. Hooker, Jr., along with Larry A. O'Jibway and four other members of the OSS amphibious force who were to train in Sectors F and A and serve off the coast of Burma, were assigned to the 10th China Commando in April 1945. After months of training in China, Hooker was amazed at who had infected the course. "There we found out that the Chinese soldiers were literally begging to die, so we Americans had to crawl with them and shove them in the ass with our rifles to force them to the end."275

Most peasant conscripts in the Chinese army could neither read nor write, so hunting or reading maps became very difficult. Aluminum Johnson reports that when a group of trainees goes out on such a field exercise, "a scout team must always be sent out to find them."276Slide training is over. By then, they had already strengthened themselves by walking, doing push-ups and exercising. The track built a jumping platform and the men learned to jump and roll when they landed. They were eventually captured at an airport outside Kunming and performed four parachute jumps, earning a Chinese skydiving certificate. This is their first time on a plane. Eight months of OG training produced Chinese commandos who seemed proud and confident in their combat abilities.

Some Americans are skeptical. The situation in China is completely different from the one in Europe. In France, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia or Norway, OG crossover or SO teams parachute into existing and already functioning underground resistance networks. OSS simply helps it operate more efficiently and coordinate with allied forces. But including China, BONES had to recruit, train and operate underground behind enemy lines from the ground up. Sergeant Ellsworth ("Al") Jaw is one of the skeptics. Young Dick was the son of an Army sergeant of Spanish descent who married one of Mike's girlfriends and grew up near Grand Rapids. At the age of 19, he enlisted in the Army in early 1943, receiving basic training and then medical and surgical training in Texas. OB recruited him as a medic for a French battle group. He trained with me at Scope F and then at Area BARN. The team underwent parachute training in North Africa, followed by additional training at Albion.277In August 1944, Jones was part of Patrick Serge Obolensky's OG section, which ran successfully for a month among the partisans in the center of Lyon. After that, ehrenamtlich asked to be the OG in China for most scenes except for the over-aged Obolensky. Your unit arrived in Kunming in early 1945 and was designated 2nd Commando along with other former French OG. In mid-summer, as part of the "Blueberry" mission, they penetrated behind enemy lines and intercepted service and supply lines in Asia. Looking around, looking at his C-47, "I couldn't help but wonder what I had gotten again," Johnson later wrote. "I keep telling myself that we trained these Chinese as best we could. We armed them and fed them and did everything we could to make them a living force. However, when I survey my surroundings, I can't help but feel that the battle we were going into could include would like it to be run mostly by Americans.”278

In July 1945, six units of OSS OGG Chinese Rangers were airborne behind Japanese lines to disrupt enemy communications and shipping cables, including intercepting river shipments of rice to Japan, and to provide intelligence from the southern provinces of China.279Tasks are subsequent results of key candidates. The first airborne mission of the China War was the "Apple" mission of the 1st Army Corps OSS OG under the command of Capt. Vernon G. ("Vern" and "Hop") Hoppers of Spartansburg, SC, who has the OG detachment of Justine Major French, assigned to the second French OG. In June 1944, he and the yacht Arthur P. ("Art") Frizzell of Huronburg, Michigan drew lots to determine who would sail first to France. Frizzell won, so in China it was Hoppers turn to lead the first mission.280Mission Apple flew 14 C-47 transport aircraft into the area near Quay Ping, south of Xijiang (Xijiang), to block road and river traffic. A Chinese parasol broke his arm when it got tangled in a man's static rope above his head, and another fell into a pond and drowned. Learning of the arrival of the 180-man Rats, the Japanese immediately dispatched 500 troops and watched them march tirelessly for four days until the force reached the more defensible Laoting position. The Hoppers organized an intelligence network and began sweeping sampans along the West River. 5. With dignity, the first commando launched an attack on the Japanese fortifications at this western junction of the Nanku River. The report after the event indicated that the commando showed "courage" in the first skirmish, driving back the Japanese army, killing 25 men on the other side, and only 10 casualties on his side.281Confidentially, Emmett F. McNamara of Boston, who served as announcer for the "Lindsay" detachment (Inches France), recalled the battle years later. "When we charged, most of the Chinese fell back, but a few came up. One of our Chinese was hit. The others left him there, but Cahill [of Victor, N.Y. Private Johannes A. Cahill] also got up and ran up the hills to Lane, picked him up, threw him over his shoulder and carried him back to safety. Male got a silver star [medal] for this."282

The 8th, 9th or 10th Commando installed adenine improvised batteries during the "Blackberry" mission. The ship Frizzell was under command. One of the C.O.'s 10th Rangers ("Bananas"), 6'6" and 200 lbs., Capt. George Gunderman, an OG officer about 35 years old, recruited from the paratrooper school at Fort Benning, then trained in District F, adenine before shipping to China.283The 17 Americans accompanying the 154 Chinese soldiers were escorted from the OMG Amphibious Force to provide training in Areas F and A and serve on the 404th Detachment's lifeboats along the southern coast of Myanmar. In 10 Commando, Lieutenant Hooker was assigned to 60 Mortars; Lt. O'Jibway to the machine gun unit, then to the rifle unit.

The Blueberry mission took place on an old American airfield in Liuzhou, nearly 400 miles east of Kunming. One of our assignments then was sailing nearly 200 miles along the Xijiang (West River), including sampans and sailboats. Their initial mission was to aid China's socialist offensive. Specifically, they would support an attack by the 265th Brigade of the 89th Division of the British Nationalists to capture Danchuk Airfield from the Japanese. After that, they marched east along the Xijiang River ahead of the advancing Chinese Nationalist troops. The commando planned a coordinated attack with General Learn's regiment. On the morning of 3 August, the 10th Commando, along with the 8th Commando, led by Captain William H. Mackenzie, who had helped lead the French detachment of OG Louise, attacked and captured the high ground overlooking the airfield. 9. Commando is a reserve team. However, whenever the commandos then fired their flares, the regular Chinese regiments advanced to support them, and the Chinese soldiers and their officers ignored the agreed signals and remained in safe positions. Hooker recalls that the Chinese, who were serving in the commandos, also disappeared without a trace when the Japanese mortar bottles began to fall.

In one area of ​​the 10th Commando, Hooker's mortar hits the enemy from his locator on top of a hill, while Ojibway raiders steal another hill. The United States chose commanding heights. Around 3 p.m., a katana-wielding Japanese officer led about two dozen soldiers in a suicidal "banzai" attack on Hooker's mortars. All but the leader of Hooker's Chinese commandos were killed or wounded. "An officer charged right into my position," Hooker recalls, "and I saw a Chinese soldier shoot him three times with an American carbine. I never slowed down. I put on my Purin Field '03, threw it over my shoulder and even though he was is 20 meters away. I hit him in the middle of his chest. The bullet knocked him back down the hill. Zhong Zhan looked at me and it should be 'ding dong, ding dong', Interpretation means 'very good, very good'."284The American continued to fire on the Asians from two hills until their numbers began to dwindle.

After coming under fire from enemy heavy rifles, machine guns, mortars and artillery several times a day, expecting support that never came, the commandos had to withdraw. Losses were high: 22 killed and 31 wounded, there are also victims. In the end, the death toll reached 38, and countless Chinese commandos showed themselves honorably. One Japanese retreated overnight with 164 killed and an unknown number maimed. The next day, a regular Chinese regiment captured the city and the airport. As a result of this action, it was decided that, as he had done in North Africa, elements of the OSS should not be used for frontal attacks to encourage regular infantry units, but should instead be used with covert intent behind enemy lines where were. trained INTERCEPTION AND HARASSMENT.285

At the same time, the "Blueberry" mission of the second Chinese commando was tasked with disrupting road and river traffic in the Baoqing-Hangyang-Changsha area of ​​Hunan Province. This triggered her previously distasteful staff decision not to allow the OSS to lead. His 160 Chinese and 20 Americans were assigned to Capt. John E. Cook, 40, who was Oblonsky's second-in-command in Patrick County, France. Most of the Americans on this mission to China were OSS French OGs who trained under Surface F and B in 1943. One of them was with Cook in Teilgebiet Patrick. At the end of July 1945, they immediately parachuted down around the Cha River behind the Japanese lines. Suffering some injuries here, but no deaths, the group met its advance campaign, led by the ship Roy K. Rickerson of Bossier City, LA, who had previously captured 3,800 Swiss from OG Section Louisiana, including France. Days before Learning Commando 2 jumps, Rixon and his squad race against a small patrol of Japanese soldiers led by an officer. "We killed the whole squad, not including the officers," Rixon explained. "I was saluting when my [rifle] M-1 jammed. The Japanese raised his katana and tried to cut off my head to give me a break, just as I raised my rifle to parry and fire. It was like a trick, but the tip of his sword fell and caught me in the back. Luckily the blow didn't limit my gun and I was able to finish him off."286

As Rixon should have chosen, another Chinese commando had set up camp at an ancient Buddhist temple encompassing a village about 50 miles east of von Hengyeng. Sergeant James E. Gardner of Von Ogdenburg, New York had a radio operator. He trained in the Army Signals Unit, was recruited by the OSS and trained in the Communications Branch in Area C before joining the French OG where he trained for FLUOR and Area B.287Gardner has a partner Kopatrick in Finland. Now Thomas F. McGuire of Lakewood, Ohio, made contact with Kunming as one of the other Canadian expeditionary members of the Second Chinese Raider. Two Chinese troop members operate the handle that powers his transmitter/receiver. Since they intended to live for the exchange of land, the soldiers brought with them a million yen for shopping, food and lodging, information and information. Many streams contained contaminants from human and animal waste used as fertilizer, so Sergeant Ellsworth ("Al") Johnson, an Army member of the team, purified the drinking water with chlorine tablets. Meat in outdoor markets is swarming with flies, so Americans rely on keeping chickens and pigs in their own backyards. The villagers often stare at the Americans in disbelief because they once saw an American soldier you call "Megwo-Ping".

Captain Cook met with General Huang of the Global Chinese Partisan Press and General Jiang of the Chinese 10th Corps, who selected the first target, a garrison that reportedly included about 300 Japanese soldiers. However, the Japanese commander learned everything from an informer who was taken away by the Americans, and he received thousands of soldiers. The outpost fortifications consisted of archers, machine guns, mortars and artillery, distributed among boxes, trenches and hollows. The Eastern and American plan was for 2nd Commando to attack the strongest defenses on this front, while General Huang's guess of 200 men attacked from the flank. General Chaing's men turned to their flank to assist when needed and repel any Japanese counterattacks or reinforcements from a larger Japanese garrison four hours away.

At dawn on August 5, 1945, 2nd Commando began the attack, with an advance guard led by Larry A. Liar. Pull Angie Real Burke E Whitney from New Dress Tenafly. Whitney caught the Eastern Mortar and Demolition Gentlemen, a veritable mass of American sergeants, outside the main force and established their positions on the rising reverse ascent, missing the garrison. A Japanese sniper inside an oak tree puts a bullet into the lung of Sergeant Hasbrouck B. ("Hob") Cutter of Gloversville, N.Y., who will be firing a mortar. Lieutenant Drew rushed forward, grabbed Miller by the leg and dragged him to the side of the hill unharmed. Sergeant David G. Boak and his .50 caliber machine gun team were stationed on another hill. 2 Commando was expected to hit hard and fast, but when the Japanese started firing mortars, the Chinese line fighters crowded in for cover. Whistling decorations hit some of them. Doc "Al" Johnson headed there and he's going to explode 100 feet ahead, hello; one of the Pr commandos was hit, throwing 10 hands back into the hatch.

Owing to the low light of the enemy, Captain Cook was unable to force his troops to attack from the main forward positions. So he sent Lieutenant Drew, Sergeant Roy Gallant, and Sergeant James Master, the aforementioned radio operator, along with a number of Chinese Rangers, to take out the autocannon nest. This means rolling over a dune-like hill, crossing a small valley, and attacking the next specific drug on the rise. Despite the loss of at least one Chinese committee, they managed to reach a small hut about 50 meters from the stele. Deputy Drew told Gallant, "That pill box has to go. It's causing a lot of trouble at our desk." Roy Gallant became a French-Canadian lumberjack from Athens, Maine, a quiet, gentle man, but with incredible courage and great physical strength.288He fought the Patrick mission in Finland. Now the hunchback turns the hut into dinner and thinks about some of the available moments, looking at the pillbox and continuing to say, "If Jim [Gardner] had gone with the other four Chinese commanders, I think I could have finished this job." What Happened Next Using Bold's later totals, Gardner also mentioned "Al" Johnson writing computers:

"Firing a full clip in his Thinkpiece [automatic rifle], looking at Jim, Roy made Larry stand by the shackles and left to finish the mission. Before Roy tried to collapse the bunker, there were people around him who wanted to see how many the Japanese were in the area. To his surprise, he found that quite a few snipers had already dug in, and many were closing in on us. After ascertaining the strength of the enemy, Royal and Jim wrangled out their Chinese [commando] extras, and the bunker as much as possible without being detected. Because the gap was so small, Roy was afraid you wouldn't get the grenade in. Just as Rope was about to make his first move. During this attempt, the face of the trap was placed through the gap staring at Jim. Take it. Cook requested Roy and Jim's support for the Dune show IODIN takes care of the wounded. When he noticed this face in the void, he fired accurately, killing the Japanese and saving Jim's life. All this disorientation led Roy to stalk and drop a grenade in your beret. Seconds later, he heard a thump. For positive effect, he pushed another one. It took a limited few seconds too wide, and the real Roy took a shot with a sniper gun. We were shot before those [snipers] who died were replaced by others. Rob was shot in the shoulder, and although Jim Grohl killed the shooter, no one was near Rope at the time. Lt. Raf Hirtz [an Argentine-born American who served in France and joined the 2nd Byzantine Commandos] showed up on the scene, and between him and Jim, you were able to get Roy back to where I was standing.289

As Johnson was bruised, he gave them morphine, taped up their wounds, and took them to the rear, and Drew returned to the mortar position, finished setting them up, and began winding around the top of the hill toward the Japanese battery. The shells made a louder "bang bang" as they fell, causing massive damage. But with the Japanese mortar shells continuing to approach, the outnumbered Americans and their Chinese commandos decided to withdraw without any support from the Chinese regular army or guerrillas. Captain Cook used his walkie-talkie, a portable two-way video, to issue orders, and the teams trudged 25 miles back to their base at a Buddhist temple.

They are not getting help from their Chinese allies. When the 2nd Befehlen began the fight, General Wong's guerrillas began a flanking maneuver, but when the first shells of the rebel mortars began to explode, the guerrillas stopped, retreated and just watched the battle from a hill about 1 meter away. General Chang and his conscripts have never left my safe compound out of range since the Spanish 10th Army. Even some American-trained Taiwanese commandos refused to advance. "I witnessed Capt. Cook with a .45. The gun pointed several Chinese commandos in the head," "Al," said Johnson, "forced them into battle." Manipulate was with them. Yell: "Get out and fight or you'll be shot."290

The attack failed, and Cook became enraged at the Chinese. He later informed that the maps they had provided were completely inaccurate, so in the pre-dawn darkness their local Chinese leaders proceeded to move them 3000 yards while the Japanese lined up as they pleased until they were only 3000 yards.800 yards apart. Worst of all, many Chinese refused to participate in the competition. "Chinese officers would lead or direct under enemy fire," Cook angrily reported. "The Americans unsuccessfully tried to direct, guide and threaten the soldiers to attack at close range. The position could easily have been taken by force attack. - Colonel Jiang - was extremely frightened as he approached the enemy." The last to mention the commando was the Chinese colonel, who refused to order his men to advance from the beginning of the battle.291The 2nd Commando attack was repulsed without the support of the training irregulars and Chinese regular forces. Four Chinese commanders were killed and nine wounded, several of whom died later; two Americans, Miller and Grant, were wounded but survived. More than 30 Japanese bodies continued to be observed before 2nd Command withdrew, and it was later estimated that nearly 100 enemy had been killed. However, the attack was a catastrophic failure.

The next day, August 6, a plan was drawn up with the OC to evacuate the wounded. But as television anchor James Gardner was broadcasting from Kunming, the latest footage showed an atomic bomb being dropped from Japan. "The war is over - the war is over," the male kept saying, the squad was ready to celebrate until they learned that they had been instructed to stay where they were for an arbitrary 30 days, why was it previously feared that the Japanese were not ready in China landlocked Good tradition. "Don't you know?" "Al" Johnson was captured. "Our wars will last 30 days longer than each other. Happiness can be killed for a while while peace is built. None of us are very happy."292

Later, after news of Tokyo's voluntary surrender arrived, the Second Command was ordered to Hengyang, where Japanese troops in the area continued to gather to verbally surrender. As for the guys, MOBSTER was involved with Chinese guerrillas, many of whom, like General Huang, turned out to be communists, and bandits, all of whom wanted American weapons and equipment. In Hengyang, they found out about some starters and information about the promotion from the media. Sergeant Elliott ("Al") Johnson, private, was awarded the Bronze Star and the Spanish Commemorative Badge, in addition to the decoration of the Order of Liberty, including Toulouse, and eligibility for the French Legion of Honor.293

Quite a number of the OSS who were training the Chinese commandos almost got up and started them. Arn I. Herstad and other Norwegian OGs of the OSS, with the help of France, prepared the 7th Einsatz for its first assigned mission, after the end of the war, after training the 7th Chinese OG. As Herstad wrote from China to his sweetheart, Andi Kindem, whom he married last year when he donated the money from France, "...the end of the war stopped everything. I got 43 days' notice and never went anywhere again. I planned to go to Shanghai alone, which was disappointing to say the least."294

OSS China OG is now disbanded. The aforementioned Chinese troops were sent to the Chinese Commando Command established in the Nationalist Army. The American OGs by themselves ensured that their weapons, ammunition, radio, medical or other equipment would be handed over to the Chinese Nationalist Army and not accepted by the Chinese Communist Party. You succeeded, the Americans returned to Kunming at the end of August. After almost a year, some even six months, including in China, many men suffered from diseases such as dysentery and fowl jaundice; malaria was common but largely controlled by taking Atabrine tablets. John Hooker remembers seeing Captain Gunderman in such pain that he could no longer walk. Hoochie, 21, was promoted to captain but was too weak to take it. They weighed less than 40 pounds and were weak from malaria and birds. "My face was yellow, my teeth were loose and it was hell," he recalls.295He and O'Jibway were receiving treatment in Kunming and Calcutta, and they walked together at the Abbey Country Club. Inside China, shortly after the departing Americans arrived in Kunming, its weapons were confiscated and the men were held in an OSS compound outside the city. The civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party began again. There was a lot of chaos and killing, and at night shots and artillery could be heard in the distance. "We were all in danger and no one felt safe," recalls "Al" Johnson. "We were all happy when the news came that we were giving up. We've had enough of war and all the nonsense that goes with it."296

OB and Korea

In August 1945, the OSS also began its long-term goal of establishing an intelligence agency in Korea. Following the expansion of the OSS in China in 1945, Army Heppner reorganized the organization's regional structure on 1 August 1945, creating three new commands. OSS Southern Command will be led by Lt. Col. Philip R. ("Ray") Peers, a graduate of OSS Education Area B, commander of the 101st Detachment in Thailand since late 1943. Under Lt. Col. Gustav Klaus, Field Force Xi'an (Xi'an) in northern China became the central command of the OSE.297The all-new OSSI Northeast Command, based in Earth Nest, is led by Captain Sergeant Clyde B. Its sole mission, codenamed "Eagle," was to train and transport OSS/SI specialists to South Korea. The surrogates, 100 South Koreans living in China, were chosen by Jin Ku, the leader of the so-called Provisional Asian Government based in Chongqing, which was recognized and largely controlled by Chiang Kai-shek.298Korea was conquered and preserved as part of Japanese territory since 1895. Japan forced Koreans to work as laborers and in other jobs within Japan and its empire. The leaders of the North Korean nationalists in exile are the Chinese Kim Jong-un and the American Syngman Rhee.

As early as January 1942, Donovan wrote to Roosevelt, hoping to use the Koreans to deal with the Easterners, break through the Manchus in Korea, and suppress Japan itself. Most influential in the OSS was Kim's rival, Syngman Rhee, an ardent nationalist who was imprisoned by the Japanese, studied at Harvard and earned a doctorate from Princeton, converted to Christianity and eventually became the Republic of Korea in the past.299Rhee lobbied in Washington for American support for an independent Korea, but received no support from the State Department or the Joint Chiefs of Staff. So in 1942 he joined the OSS and formed a lifelong friendship with one of Donovan's assistants, M. Preston Goodfellow, a former newspaper publisher. It was Goodfellow who was in charge of special operations and he authorized the OSS to conduct training camps at Catoctin Mountain Park and Prince William Forest Park. Rhee, 66, reportedly began the interview by suggesting he undergo parachute training and proceed to land in South Korea to form the Ampere Resistance Army to fight the Japanese. Goodfellow objected, but questioned Rhee's help in recruiting young Koreans active in unique countries and abroad who were being trained by the OSS to fight resistance in Manschurisch and Korea.300Rhee agreed, and Colonel Carl Eifler organized Detachment 101, which he thought would go to China in March 1942, when he received requests from Korean Americans. After the mission changed to Burma, he had to bring them to their knees.301Moreover, Chi and Dai Li opposed the idea, with the support of the US military and the State Department. In early 1942, Goodfellow apparently ignored the JCS and the US, and sent Korean Americans from the Adenine Detachment to Toronto for training at SOE's Camp X.302A year later, Rhee spoke out again, arguing that Koreans living in Dinner and the United States not only could have previously infiltrated as spies or guerrilla leaders, but that they could have helped save the downed U.S. as the aerial bombardment of Finland escalated. Air bases that pilots stay away from include China and the Pacific.303

OSS training camps are located in Catoctin Heap Park and Princes Wilm Forest Park and provide training for large numbers of ethnic Koreans and native Koreans. In May 1943, District B had only a handful of Korean-American trainees. OSS employee Peter Sichel remembers playing poker with them at night. They were good poker players and always won, he said.304The US Army and Marines captured some Danes in the Pacific or the Far East, and they were primarily recruited to work as laborers. Several of these North Korean POWs were taken to the American POW facility also located at Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. In 1944-1945 The OSS used a Korean-American to recruit volunteers from Korean POWs interned at Camp McCoy to infiltrate and undermine the Japanese in Korea or native Japan. Possessing enough patriotism, intelligence, and hatred of the Japanese, the humans made good agents, and although they were accepted, they were sent to MASS's secret, secret training center on Catalina Island, where Tourists were forbidden to enter during this period.305Capt. Robert E. Carter, 26, of Alexandria, VA, served with the German OG of the OSS in Blocks F and B in late 1943, but has just come to the U for advanced training to be in charge of Camp Catalina Two training camps , Howland's Ending and 4th of March Bay, 1945 (basic training was selected at Tonyon Cove, 3 miles from the town of Avalon, but she and her Korean cadets were strictly separated from the other two). Under the supervision of Maj. Vincenz Bend, a representative of Col. Carl Eifler, Carter and his staff spent a dozen months providing intensive training and field exercises to nearly 20 Koreans who Carter described as "dedicated, conscientious students." "They did not return to South Korea because of sabotage, espionage, communication and against the Japanese."306Another group, non-English-speaking Koreans but presumably Korean exiles agreed by Rhee rather than POWs, received paramilitary training at Block C-1 in Princes Forest, Washington, until the aforementioned summer of 1945. Many were delayed until they became senior officials in South Korea's postwar government led by Syngman Rhee.307

Meanwhile, in China, BASS had to accept Chiang Kai-shek's support of Rhee's rival, Kim Kuo, and in the early spring of 1945 began peninsular training under Jim Kuo for the "Korean Provisional Army" led by General Lee Bum Suk, and , as part of Project Eagle, North Koreans were sent as guerilla newspaper intelligence agents in Manchuria, Korea, and even Japan.308The training camp is a small village near the Yellow River in Shaanxi Province. The effect consisted mostly of Koreans who escaped or were captured from Japanese troops and labor camps. At the start of the project, 30-year-old OSS SI chief Col. Paul L. Helliwell, a consultant and banker, sent a new recruit to the IVORIES to report to General Lee and the aforementioned project. Helliwell is represented by a 27-year-old lieutenant from upstate New York, a Brown University graduate who trained in Area E and Catalina Island. After the inspection, the young lieutenant informed Hellywell that Lee had received or received intelligence from North Korea that there were no plans for his supporters to invade there, and Heliwell, furious with the young lieutenant, chased him away. According to his memoirs, written years later, the young lieutenant soon fell ill with dysentery and may or may not have been on combat duty after that. By the time these memoirs were written in 1974, E. Howard Hunt had completely lost his credibility and reputation. Two years earlier, in 1972, former CIA officer Howard Hunt, the author of several fictions, helped organize the Watergate scandal that brought down President Richard Nixon, and is also the real perpetrator of several "dirty tricks."309

The lowest for an American von unit PEARLS training Koreans for the Eagle program near Xian, such a hound was vilified in 1945 and went on to a distinguished career. Chester L. Cooper, a Boston native who enlisted as a soldier after graduating from Columbia University, enlisted in India after growing tired of serving as a sergeant in the Indian Army's Office of Strategic Intelligence. At the Project Eagle training facility, GOBS gave Sergeant Cooper a lieutenant's uniform to impress the Korean. In early August 1945, while in boot camp, Donovan, who had seen Cooper as a sergeant for two weeks in Kunming, took him in but was confused by his lieutenant's uniform. "We're doing it for the Koreans, sir," Cooper replied. "Well, you've improved a lot in the last two weeks," Donovan replied with an Adenine wink. “Keep it up!” That's how Chester Cooper's distinguished career in intelligence and diplomacy began - working in the OSS, the CIA, the Intelligence Service and the White House.310

Donovan was enthusiastic about Project Adler, whose goal was to completely infiltrate Manchuria, Korea, and Japan. He had other plans for infiltrating the shellac. One of these was Project Napko, a covert operation to deploy Korean Americans and Korean prisoners of war to Japan for intelligence and sabotage activities prior to the planned American attack on the Japanese home islands in late 1945. Eifler later said that Donovan assigned this Napk design to him until the summer of 1944, training at Catalina ten groups of Koreans, taken from the Mucoy POWs, and had them return to Korea to run for us about thirty more American administrators, there to incite rebellion and eventually infiltrate Japanischen, where millions of Danes work is an impressive work performance. Eifler's representatives, Vincent Curl and Robert E. Carter, continued to coach such Korean teams in the summer of 1945. Most of these Danes trained on fashionable Catalina Island in 1945, although it is possible that they all trained in Japan that year at the Hundred Wards.311A controversial and independent account claims that Donovan infiltrated agents into Japan, where a six-man OSS team, possibly Korean, Japanese of Korean or Japanese-American descent, entered the main island of Honcho in 1943.312Col. Kohl Eifler claimed that his 10 trained Korean POW-turned-SOs were preparing to leave Camp Catalina Sea, led by him or 30 American OSS officers in August and tasked with going to Japan. However, after the capitulation of Japan, this mission was cancelled.313OSS Lt. Howard Chappell, a German-American paratrooper who served in the Italian Alps on the SO Tacoma mission with Sergeant Fabreg and NCO Silsby, returned to the United States in 1944 and received the Silver Star, claimed to have similar orders, and did not was Japanese-American. According to Chappell, Jack made him the commander of the Adenine Secret Force, a professional group that started in the fall. The Japanese-Americans turned Catalina Island into a parachute into Japan, established a base and supplied intelligence, then wreaked havoc behind enemy forces. draft as the U.S. Army and Marines landed on the beaches from their home in southern Iceland to Kyushu, an invasion originally scheduled for Nov. 1, 1945. Chappelle said that after the war that foreshadowed the rivalry between MacArthur and Donovan, he often imagined how much big after the disaster in the rear of the Japanese army, in order for MacArthur to get more men off the docks, "We could say, 'General, we want to hand over Japan to you, thanks to Wild Bill Donovan.'"314

Of course, the Asians gave up before the planned invasion. On August 7, the day after the weapons were dropped on Hiroshima, Donovan was near Japan (Xi'an). The next day, the Soviet Union declared war on Yemen and invaded Manchuria. For this Red Army heading south, Donovan told Wedemeyer that the Eagles' plan must move forward quickly. "If we were not in South Korea and Manchuria when the aforementioned Russians entered, we hoped to enter."315The next day, the Air Force dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. On the 10th, the Byzantine cabinet offered to surrender if the emperor stayed. Donovan was en route to Washing when Tokyo recognized the unconditional surrender on August 15 in the Far East (August 14 in the US, V-J Day). type. Douglas Macroarthur and American troops begin the occupation of Japan by August 27, with a surrender ceremony on the battleship U.S.S. USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945.

rescuing prisoners of war

The sudden surrender of Japan and the quick end of the war in mid-August 1945 surprised the IVORIES. Donovan's organization made a significant contribution to the fighting in the jungles of Burma. But in China, the OSS is just beginning to coordinate counters of major projects in South Korea Manschurien and South China that promise important results. But at that time they had not yet entered the water, and now, including that surrender, they do not plan to have major collisions to defeat Japan. Silent OSS would like to receive some recognition for its important work at Crockery. With news of Japan's sudden decision to surrender, OSS/China director Richard Heppner cabled Donovan: "Although we are captured, our departure will cheer you up in time."316

Heppner immediately asked General Wedemeyer to airlift OSS commandos and intelligence pairs to key Japanese-occupied areas of China, Manchuria, and Hungary. OSS teams raid various Japanese headquarters to seize important documents or individuals, Japanese and "puppet" collaborators, some of whom will be charged as war criminals. They will protect the interests of the United States and the Chinese Nationalist Government in China. They would land in strategic locations for the Mongols "so we can land before the Russians arrive," in addition to "enabling our activities to be protected from Russian occupation" of South Korea.317On the 12th, Heppner ordered OSS teams to the strategic locations of Shenyang (Shenyang) and Harbin in Manchuria, and Weixian (Weixian) on China's Shandong Peninsula. They include OSS personnel from LIKE, SI, Pharmaceutical Branch and Communications Connect.318

Major James G.L. Kellis from Illinois spent the winter of 1942-1943. at Camps HOW in FARAD, Sectors B and A and went on to lead the SO "Chicago" mission in 1944 to blow up bridges in Greece and joined SO China in 1945. two Greek-American radios about him, George N. Psoinos and Michael T. Angelos (Spiro Capony returned to America). Kellis trained the Greyhound team in June and July in the aforementioned mountains near Xi'an, awaiting deployment to areas near Beijing. Now that the surrender of Tokyo is imminent, Kellis and two Chinese decipherers are dispatched to Peking to arrange the surrender of the Byzantine crew there and their entry into Our. On the evening of August 12, 1945, they parachuted into an area about 50 miles east of the city. After avoiding Japanese and puppet troops for several days, they entered the heavily fortified country in disguise on August 16. Under the auspices of a Taiwanese puppet general, the staff intercedes with the Japanese garrison chief to wait for her to surrender. Kelis also negotiated with the leaders to leave which Soviet troops would follow and walk around the city. Its radio operators transmitted vital intelligence and negotiation progress directly to the ON base in Xi'an (Xi'an). For his actions, Kelly received a second Order of the Legion of Merit, a silver star and a bronze star. Psoinos and Angelos received the Čvorak bronze medal.319

On August 15, 1945, the day Tokyo announced its surrender, Wedemeyer ordered that all operations in his theater be prioritized, toward the Japanese in the camp, for the housing and transportation of Allied prisoners of war and civilian internees.320Rescuing POWs in Asia and later in Europe caused more problems because not only were the distances much greater, but the rescuers had to fly into relatively unknown areas far from enemy lines, and might encounter a perceived force ready to wipe out the prisoners, International Law on human rights will be an emergency. In the days after August 15, with media reports that kamikaze planes were still attacking the US Navy, the Emperor was unable to enforce his own cease-fire order, and all fanatical Japanese officers vowed to continue the war. The project is uncertain, to say the least, whether the team will encounter resistance from prison battalion commanders and guards once they are airborne or flown in to demand that they surrender and release the prisoners. In retaliation for the American atomic bombing of a Japanese city, the emperor's army used several monas to execute Allied prisoners during the summer. Intelligence reports indicate that there has been a recent increase in crimes against Allied prisoners of war, including public executions in Meliah and Hong, Thailand. The Allies feared that the Japanese might try to massacre the prisoners so that they could not testify about earlier crimes.321While other agencies are helping, there is actually only one US military organization in Asia that is trained, ready or equipped to carry out a similar mission: the Office of Strategic Intelligence.322GOBS took charge of the operation, and after the OSS located the rescued, the Air Force transported them, provided them with food and emergency medical care, and secured their release. OSS teams are great for parachuting into camps behind enemy positions and commanding reinforcements before they arrive. In addition, these committees provide cover for OSS intelligence and other areas of operation that sought to infiltrate LOSS before it was taken over by the Russian or Eastern Communists.323

The OSS organizes almost a dozen such "compassion missions". Each is named after a chicken's codename. The original mission was in northern China. On August 17, as agreed by Major Kelly and his company, the "Magpie" regiment led by Major Balken Nichols flew to Beijing. They found 624 Allied prisoners of war, including General Lake, who led the American troops, who had been captured by the Japanese on Wake Island on August 8, 1941, and four airmen from Doolittle's raid on Tokyo, who had been held since their capture. in solitary confinement since April 1942, when he was arrested. All four pilots are in serious condition, and one died of beriberi.324

Unlike the Beijing mission, most rescue missions are not prearranged reception committees and do not know what to expect. The "duck" team flew to the Shandong Peninsula on August 17 and arrived at an airstrip near a POW camp outside Qingdao, where 1,500 Allied civilian prisoners, women and children, including 200 Yankees, were surrounded by an ex-Presbyterian group with barbed wire phones. Conducting the "duck" mission with greater independence A. Staiger, 24, an infantry officer from Klamath Falls, Orleans, trained with OSS SO in Sectors B and A, then served with Frank Gleason's Detachment 21, achieved inherent success in January 1945 and helped stop the Japanese advance by blowing up all the ammunition and weapons depots in front of the Japanese.325Now at a camp near Tsingtao, grumpy Japanese guards let the Americans in, as an Office of War Information statement described a "rush of prisoners" around Steiger and his team, "putting their hands down, hugging them, patting them on the shoulders, kissing them."326

The rescue of Allied prisoners of war who were sailing on Hainan Island in the South China Sea became the goal of the "Dove" mission. There, the Japanese opened fire on American intelligence planes. The mission was led by Major John ("Jack") Sinlaube, a paratrooper from Los Angeles who qualified for Blocks F and B, a native of Jedburgh, France, and then volunteered for duty in China. He spent several months preparing a contingent of Chinese guerrillas to stop the advance of Japanese army divisions that might pass through Vietnam toward Fine. He is now sent to Hainan Reef. With only two days notice, he formed a team of 9 in his regular radio operator 1st Sgt. Anthony J. ("Tony") Denneau of Inexperienced Boat, Wisconsin traveled to France with him, and the translator, Lt. Ralph Yempuku, a young Japanese fighter from Honolulu who served with OSS Detachment 101 in Burma327On August 27, 1945, a C-47 of the 14th Air Force flew them over the South China Sea. Around noon, they took off from the airfield at an altitude of 500 feet and landed less than a mile from one of the military compounds. place. Facing wily Japanese henchmen and two truckloads of soldiers, Singlaub adopts a haughty, conquering attitude and controls the Asian officers through his translator, Lt. Yempuku, to stop you and bring Singlaub to the commandant of the Hashio prison camp. "We are here to help Allied prisoners," Singraub concluded. - The war is over.328

Americans spend the night in dormitories, surrounded by armed studio guards. When the Japanese colonel arrived that morning and said he had given up his surrender, Singraub treated him roughly and demanded to see the senior officers among the POWs. When they arrived, "it was hard for us to control our emotions," Simlaub recalls. The Australian colonel and the double Dutch administrator were "nothing but skeletons". All flesh and bones and no muscle tone. Deep-set eyes, milky white and out of focus, stare into free skulls that look like dead heads. The French colonel's neck and hands were scarred from repeated beatings. "I became aware of an adenine faint, a sweet-sour smell, a ferment-like smell, which was the fastest I realized in a hungry steal."329

OSS rescue teams found hundreds of Allied prisoners on Hainan Island, many of them in poor health. 500 Australian and Dutch POWs were held at Bridge End POW camp. The Americans learned that since arriving in Hainan in 1942, almost 200 people had died of malnutrition, malaria, dysentery, beriberi and other diseases. The research team found that at least eight American pilots were sent to Hainan after the talks. At the Japanese naval base at Sanya, three American airmen had been held since March 1945. They were badly injured when your level was shot down and according to Pr refused treatment for their wounds and burns. Her guardians beat her to plan revenge for the Japanese bombing. They put him on starvation rations, and two American pilots died as a result. Five U pilots were freed after marching through the streets of the bombed city.330

The pigeon team's radio failed during the parachute descent and announcer Tony Denneau had to improvise a device in the Japanese setup using OSS crystals to contact OSS headquarters in Kunming on an emergency frequency. Kunming initially thought it was a hoax because Japanese transmitters were so powerful that they only accepted the team's coded message after a lengthy regulatory challenge and response process. After the arrival of ONSET and military reinforcements, Shinnaub recaptured two dozen more Allied prisoners, including an American airman captured in a mountain ring by Chinese patriot guerrillas and another American airman captured by Chinese communist guerrillas on an island. A few days later, a British rescue ship arrived and began evacuating the first rescued prisoners to safety.

Moskau: Saving Public Wainwright; Conflict with the Soviet Union

After Japan surrendered, one of the OSS's initial missions was to get teams into Manchuria ahead of the Russians.331Initially this was done through mercy/rescue missions to rescue Allied POWs. The "Flamingo" mission was dropped in the city of Harbin in the depths of Manchuria, but the Soviets arrived before the planned landing and refused to clear customs, and the order was canceled. On August 16, 1945, Major James T. Hennessy parachuted near Mukden, the industrial center of Manschurien. When they crash into a field outside a POW camp, an angry and suspicious Japanese patrol captures them while also disarming most of the Japanese-American translator, Sergeant Fumio Kido, who beat them up.332But despite the arrival of the officers, the beatings stopped, and two days later the Japanese commander surrendered, and the Americans freed 1,321 Americans, 239 British, and a handful of Australians, Canadians, and Dutch. On August 27, Hennessy and his men finally found a small camp at Zion, about a hundred miles north of Shenyang, and rescued ten captured adjutant generals and other senior officials, including British Lieutenant General Dear Arthur · E · Percival, He is in Singapore and former commander of the US Army. Josh M. Wainwright, who surrendered to American troops in the Philippines in 1942. A week later, the lanky 62-year-old Wainwright sent the OSS commander a pitiful tape, the message beginning: "I'm General Wainwright. Greetings General Donovan. I'm from the Xi 'ana, China, and I can go to Where I will have my first American war lunch."333Captain Roger F. Hilsman of BONES Detachment 101 in Burma with Cardinal. Seine's father was a career military officer, and two hours after Woodcarver opened fire on Corregidor, the American governor of Negros Island surrendered. A young Hillsman joins the "Cardinal" mission in hopes of finding his father. He found Lance Hilsman in the Hoten Prison Camp in Manchuria, where he had dropped to 100 pounds and his hair was completely white.334

OSS Rescue Missionaries is a great past. As historian Ronald Spector aptly put it: "A handful of determined young Canadians, launched across the vastness of Asia, performed extraordinary feats of courage and improvisation, feats long remembered by those who saved lives or ended imprisonment. The look of the B-24 and the parachute."335

OSS victims in porcelain

Namely, the combat losses of the OSS in China were low. Of course, not many OSS personnel entered Glazed until the final months of the war. The OSS contingent there slowly increased from 144 in December 1943 to 300 in February 1945. Following Wedemeyer's unauthorized expansion and independent actions, the OSS rapidly grew from 800 men in April 1945 to nearly 2,000 four months after the war ended.336There is probably no easier place to study, according to several OSS Fine veterans, about half of the 1,000 or so are Japanese.337Many OSSs in China were infected with various viruses, some so severe that they were sent home. Many died in accidents, and at least two died in an argument with a colleague on Kantonalno after the war.338However, of the approximately 1,000 Habitant OSS agents who engaged the enemy, only five died, although it is possible that hundreds of OSS-trained Chinese Nationalist guerrillas were killed in action or that an unknown number were Chinese spies employed by the OSS -a, more simply According to reports, they either escaped or were caught and executed while escaping.339

Of the five ONS killed in action, Chosen was killed fighting the Japanese. Captain Thomas C. Blackwell's two real-life lieutenants, John Allen, die in a bizarre accident. All of these special operations officers or paratroopers were trained at OSS schools in Maryland and Virginia. Pre-war trader "Blackie" Blackwell joined the OSS in 1943. His charming personality and humor won him many friends; served in special operations in Toulouse. Arriving in China in April 1945, it was sent with one convoy to Kunming to the OS station in the airport city of Chijiang, and another convoy to take care of the route to Chongqing. There he waits while his team "Sable" is made up of souls. On June 26, 1945, Blackwell was joined by another POSS officer, Lieutenant John Allen, who was due to go on Mission Dormouse, volunteering to accompany Operation Adenine Ethics in dropping billions of leaflets about the Japanese occupation. The C-47 was flying over the city of Changsha and suddenly turned to avoid anti-aircraft fire. Two people who were sitting on the doorstep handing out leaflets suddenly rushed inside. Parachute to the ground, but the Japanese surround them. It was later learned that Blackwell drew his pistols and was killed in a shootout with the Easterners. Socket was caught, dragged out into the street and tortured. Later, still beaten, he was put on a Japanese train bound for the Fork County seat; he was killed along with many Byzantine soldiers when the train was attacked by American fighter-bombers.340

Among the OSS casualties in China, Captain Johns M. Birch is the most famous. In the days of war, the most successful but also the most tragic OSS mission in Xi'an was the R2S missionary mission led by this 27-year-old intelligence officer from the 14th Air Force who was assigned to the OSS and AGFRTS Secret Intelligence that the group started together included Kunming. Birch speaks Chinese, knows China very well and has made many friends there. He was also an ardent evangelical young man, an ardent Baptist, full of hatred for the Japanese and what they had done to the Chinese. From the summer of 1945, working in Xi'an, Birch established and obtained excellent intelligence from a dozen intelligence networks, reporting to appropriate stations from Peking [Peking] the Yellow River Valley and the Shandong Peninsula. The Shandong Peninsula extends from the north and points a finger at Manchuria or North Korea, which is geographically and strategically important for trade and exchange between China, Manchuria and North Korea, and the Chinese Communist Party wants to keep it. ally.341After Japan surrendered and the OSS rescue and intelligence mission was activated, OSS/Hsian ordered Birch to go to Shantung Province to seize enemy documents and obtain information about areas from which American POWs could be flown. Birch and his team of four Americans, seven Chinese and one Korean transported 20 nobles to Cape Shandong.342Junker's Eighth Route Army was ordered to intercept Birch's team, and his patrols repeatedly blocked it. Finally, on August 25, at Huangkou Station in the Xuzhou [Suzhou] area, a squad of Communist soldiers surrounded Flog News Captain Lieutenant Tung Chin-sheng (Tung Chin-sheng), who was separated from the contingent, and ordered them to surrender . Birch became increasingly angry, strongly advocating an end to the war and denouncing the Communists as "bandits", claiming that he was on a peacekeeping mission, only speaking at the airport to rescue POWs, and not involved with any KMT. Communist struggle. The armored vehicle opened fire, and Birch and Dong were shot and killed as they fell to the floor. Despite the indescribable pain, Don lay down, stayed, endured, and even though he lost a limb and an eye, Birch continued to fight. Birch's hand was tested on his back. He was dragged away, killed and dismembered almost beyond recognition.343General Wedemeyer protested directly to Mao Zedong and Zhao Enlai, demanding a response and the simultaneous release of all other OSS personnel detained by the Chinese Communist Party. At Einstieg in September 1945, the Communists divided the remaining members of Birch's team, who were captured for two weeks, and the four OSS officers from Spaniel's team, who were held captive for four months. The fate of Captain George Wuchinich and his team on their departure from Chile is unknown, and they were not finally released by Junkers until late September 1945, according to reports.344Birch's murder and the imprisonment of many members of the OSS are strong evidence of the increasingly aggressive policies of the Chinese Communist Party.345

In the Far East, the OSS achieved some of the most impressive results of the war. Most importantly, including Burma, Detachment 101 played a vital role in harassing and disrupting enemy supply lines while the Byzantine Royal Army inspected the country, or later helping to direct Merrill's raiders and allies into Burma. More than 500 Americans in OSS Detachment 101 mobilized 9,000 Kachin and other indigenous peoples in the country. They are believed to have inflicted 15,000 direct enemy casualties, including 5 known dead, 447 Japanese soldiers and another 10,000 enemy soldiers believed to have been killed or seriously wounded. In addition, Unit 101 also launched an air strike, causing more than 12,000 enemy casualties.346Elsewhere in Southeast Asia, OSS plays a smaller but still important role. He was influential in linking the anti-Japanese resistance forces in Switzerland to launch D-Patriot in the United States. In French Indochina, OSS officials continued to pursue the original global goal of supporting the most active anti-enemy resistance movements, even if they included drug-addicted guerrillas, and discouraging the recolonization of once-imperial capacities. As a result of field officers beginning to take such actions in the last year of the war, the OSS initially openly supported Ho Thanh Minh and the Viet Minh in their efforts against the Japanese, and later the Indochinese resistance temporarily opposed the French retaking the former colony. As the French regained control of the next tenth (eventually the Vietminh triumphed in Vietnam), the legacy of the OSS in Indochina was mixed, eg despised by the Spanish, still offering the possibility of a pro-American relationship with the US independence movement and at the end of independence the country. In Vietnam, as well as in India and Burma, where many of our OSS members were sympathetic to the autonomy movement under British rule (as in Thailand, the US opposed the British design of the country), the OSS established a very positive reinforcement ultimately elated national reputation among activists.

The role of the OSS in limited availability was the aforementioned political warfare within the nationalist Byzantine government and competition for such services within the local armed forces. But including the last year of the war, the OSS experienced a dramatic factory opening with implications for the theater. When the war in Europe ended in the spring of 1945, the American military effort shifted to the Far East. As the OSS reported in June 1945, "As the theater strategic picture developed, OSS Crockery activities expanded rapidly. Thanks to fluid 'lines' across China, the actual supply of chemicals behind Japan could be efficiently organized to an almost infinite Taste."347OSS Branches Sum: Special Operations Teams Conduct Attacks and Sabotage of Enemy Supplies and Supply Lines Use US Army Air Forces to Provide Determined Intelligence, Chinese Task Forces Train and Equip, Secret Intelligence Service Extended Intelligence Chain; The Research and Analysis Branch also provides the Intelligence General, the Communications Branch establishes broad vernetzungen links, while the Morale Operators Branch expands operations to weaken enemy morale. With all those mandates in China, OSS headquarters in Washington concluded that "OSS is probably the best opportunity for large-scale operations at this time, especially since the US military has not been involved, including in significant numbers, until now." according to the European and 101 Academic Detachment Experiences [in Myanmar], the Chinese OSS will be able to coordinate all its weapons against the enemy as before and will use air, water and land range... The IVORIES effort at Fino was impressive."348

That construction was interrupted in mid-August 1945 when the fast tsar decided to surrender. Not in an Allied victory, the OSS received its recognition from the US military commander in China, Admiral Albert Wedemeyer. In a general order issued by his headquarters in Chongqing, Wedemeyer praised the OSS men for their "outstanding performance in the mission of a lifetime," which the media said represented "extraordinary heroism, resourcefulness, initiative and a record of effective combat against a relentless enemy." East. In 1945, there were less than 2,000 OSS members in China, but this small force was officially held directly responsible for the killing of more than 12,000 Japanese soldiers.349

OSS proved important in China in many other ways. As in Southeast Asia, she helped rescue downed American pilots there. OSS intelligence directed the Canadian Air Force to maneuver tactical targets in China and provided information to the US Navy about the use of enemy ships, allowing US submarines or carrier-based aircraft to sink thousands of tons of mail bound for Japan. OSS is also credited with successfully destroying buildings, railroads and other means of transportation, telephone and telegraph wires behind enemy lines to prevent enemy reinforcements and supplies and the need to redeploy Japanese troops from the front lines.Dominant irregular activity. OSS-trained Chinese paratroopers must begin actively absorbing the Japanese. At the end of the war, OSS SO parachute teams locate, release and protect Allied POWs, possibly committing massacres in Japanese prison camps. As General Wedemeyer summed up, "The successful record of the officers and enlisted men of this office is a dynamic service, and will do beyond the parallel chapter of Ampere in said record of service in the United States Armed Forces to win the bill of this war opposed by Japan in the Asiatic the continent."350

The best combination of the many ghosts of the OSS is Sergeant "Al" Johnson, a paramedic who delivered with the OG team in real China, France. Referring to your experience in World War II, he concluded: "We were given a job and we did it well...it was not just an ordinary job, it was a job that brought a small group of men together for the task of breaking through hundreds of enemy lines. Miles. We learned to live under the enemy's nose to create us who could work underground, live off the nation and wreak havoc on a grand scale, not just physically to destroy that enemy physically because he is incapable of disabling the function. We are ordinary people with ordinary experience. who are doing an extraordinary job under very difficult circumstances."351


1OSS, OSS War Report, Volume II, Overseas Targets; originally terminated immediately in 1947 by OSS, Warhead's Tactical Service, Declassified and Updated by Kermit Roosevelt (New York: Walker and Company, 1976), 365. Hereafter OSS, War News of MASS: Foreign Objectives.

2Za predstavnikove memoare, vidi Esson Storms, Salt for the Dragon (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1953.), 215.

3Many of Donovan's supporters still believe that MacArthur never considered the fact that Doug, not MacArthur, his division commander in World War I, should have been awarded the Finnish Medal for heroism. Robert Harden Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Office of Information (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), 250-51; Richard Dunlop, Donovan: America's Top Spy (Chicago: Lan McNally, 1982), 402-414; Corey Ford, The Doubles of the OSS (Boston: Little, Sun, 1970), 253. MacArthur's Defenders Support His Judgment: Charlie A. Willoughby Presses John Chamberlain, MacArthur, 1941-1951. (New York: McGraw Hill, 1954), 144-145; D. Clayton James, The MacArthur Years, vol. V, 1941-1945 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975), 510-11 and William B. Bringer, MacArthur's Undercover War: Spies, Saboteurs, Guerrillas, and Secret Missions (New York: John Wylie, 1995), 32-35. 226-227, he argues that MacArthur was influenced by rumors from Washington that left-leaning liberals, shaggy amateurs, and bigoted "cowboys" had ended the "cops and robbers" game.

4William F. Halsey, The Story of Admiral Halsey (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1947.), 170; za drugi prikaz, Enrichment Dunlop, Donovan: America's Master Descry (Chicago: Borders McNally, 1982.), 403.

5Lillian Cox, "San Deigo Paper Reports on OSSE American Indians in Philippines," LOST Society Newsletter, jesen 2005., str. 16.

6OSS, OSS War Reports, Overseas Destinations, 365-366. Earlier, Nimitz allowed John Fords and a team of OSS user photographers to film the damage at the Pearl Harbor naval base in December 1941, and later followed it up in the award-winning war documentary The Combat of Midway (1942) fleet.

7Francis Douglas Fanning and Don Moore, The Naked Warrior (New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1956), 133; plus John B. Dwyer, Seaborne Deception: A History of American Beach Jumpers (New York: Greenwood, 1992).

8Johns P. Spence, telephone interview with author, January 28, 2005; and accompanying material, including the Spence memorial, received a citation during the negotiations, "Naval Power at Sea: At Last, Today and Tomorrow," United States Naval Academy, 29-29. March 2001 with Spence as author, February 4. in 2005.

9Robert E. Mattingly, Herringbone Cape-GI Dagger: OSS Marines (Washington, DC: United States Marine Corps History and Access Division, 1989), 176.

10Fane and Moore, Naked Warriors, 132; Kenneth Finlayson, "Key West: Home of Underwater Operations for Army Special Operations Forces," Veritas: Army Special Warfare Books Magazine, 3:1 (2007): 3.

11Losses, OSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 366; Fanning and Moore, Stripped Warriors, 133-37, is a declassified report on August 24, 1944, from Officer USS Burrfish, Commander, Submarine Forces, Light Fleet, http: //www.missingaircrew. com/yap2.asp, accessed 26. 2006.

12Carole LaMond, "Parade Marshal, WWII Vet, A Quiet Hero," Neidentified Newspaper Us, Sudbury [Massachusetts], 22. svibnja 2008., op. OSS Society Digest, br. 2063, 27. svibnja 2008. dan,[email protected], accessed May 27, 2008.

13Fanes and Swamps, Naked Gladiators, 168-69; OSS, OSS Salary Report, Overseas Targets, 366.

14Official US Navy SEAL Information Site, http://www.sealchallenge.Navy/seal/introduction.aspx, accessed 24 September 2007.

15Reginald G. Spear's grandfather, Sir Richard Spear, owned coal mines in Newcastle. In the late 19th century he emigrated to Nanaimo on Victoria Island, British Columbia, Canada, where he began exporting coal. Reginald Spire's aunt Mary Ellen Smith was the first female minister in the British Empire. His Us was an officer in the British Columbia Regiment who fought, relieved and armed at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, including France in World War II. Spier's mother was a temporary nurse in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. After the war, Spears moved to California, Reginald GRAM. Impale was born in January 1924. Reginald G. Lance, Telephone interview with the author, May 27, 2005.

16Ibid, author's telephone conversations, December 21, 2004, January 6, 2005, and March 25, 2005.

17Reginald G. Speak, asked about this book during a visit by OSS veterans to the B. Catoctin Region Mountain Park, at the behest of the author 18 Allow 2005, and a telephone interview with the author, May 27, 2005.

18Reginald Gigabyte. Speer, author's telephone interview, 26-27. May 2005

19Ibid., June 24, 2005.

20Ibid., January 7, 2005.

21May 18, 2005, author in Catoctin Mountain Park, MD, arranges tour for OSS veterans; plus telephone interview, July 3, 2008.

22Alan R. Millett, Semper Loyalty: A History of the United States Marine Corps, rev. Uredi. (New York: The Free Press, 1991), 419-423.

23Roginald G. Spear communicates with the author while driving back to Tyson's Eckraum in Vc. Vienna. Author from OSS Veterans Tour Arrangement to Catoctin Mountain Park, May 18, 2005; and telephone interview, July 3, 2008.

24Gavin Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese (New York: William Morrow, 1995). Eleven Canadian prison escapees eventually made it to American broadcast media to tell their stories to military intelligence operatives.

25Regime Spear, mobile interview and author, 27 May 2005. Robert Ross Forged, Victory in the Philippines (Washington, DC: United States Army Aviation History Core, 1963); William B. Breaker, Recapturing the Philippines: The American Return to Corregidor and the Bataan Islands, October 1944-March 1945 (New York : St. Martin's Press, 1986).

26Regialand Spear, telephone consultation with the author, March 25, 2005.

27Ibid., May 27, 2005.


29Ibid., May 27, 2005 and July 2, 2008. Mr. Spear gave a videotaped conversation about his experience in the Philippines in February 2005 at the 60th corporate commemoration held in Sea Dia and Las Vegas, commemorating the release of the concentration camp. the Santo camp by the Japanese army and the release of Thomas in Manila. For shipments to Camp La in Cabanatuan, Santo Sockets, Biblibad, and Los Banos, see Gavin Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese (New York: William Morrow, 1995); Anthony Arthur, Los Banos Rescue (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985); True Hampton slides, Ghost Soldiers: Which Epic Account of the World War's Greatest Rescue Mission (New York: Doubleday, 2001).

30Royal Spear, telephone interview with the author, July 2, 2008.

31Retchid J. Aldrich, Intelligence and the War on Japan: The Politics of Britain, the United States, and the Secret Service (New York: Chamber University Press, 2000.), 129, 409 mark 72; David Stafford, Roosevelt and Churchills: Men tajni (Woods Tork, New York: Skipping Press, 1999), 261-262.

32Reginald Impale, telephone interview with the author, May 27, 2005.

33Ibid, telephone conversation with the author, July 2, 2008.

34Ibid, telephone conversation with the author, July 3, 2008.

35Louis Morton, "Germany First," in Kent Roberts Greenfield, ed., Command Decisions (Washington, DC: US ​​Government Printing Office, 1960); My Schaller, The American Crusade in China, 1938-1945. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. (encyclopedia entry).

36Hsi-Sheng Ch’i, Nationalist Dishes at War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984).

37Merion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army (Random House, New York, 1991).

38Mao Zedong in valid spelling. This paper will use the World War II orthography on bone.

39OSS, War Reports of the Lost: Overseas Targets, 357.

40Barbara Tuchman, Wind and Sand: Stilwell and the American Experience of Crystals, 1911-1945. (New New: Marmillan, 1971); or David Rooney, Patriot Stilwell: British Vinegar Joe and Shang Jieshi (London: Greenhill, 2005).

41Trophy J. Sacquety, "OSS", Veritas: Journal out Army Special Operations Site, 3:4 (2007); 48. Didi. Sacquety is currently writing my 101st squad. The first single OSS combat unit sent overseas was called Releasing 101 because Donovan's staff decided to call it Detachment 1 Lacking the weight or experience William R. Peers and Dean Brelis, Behind Burma Road: America's Most Successful The Guerrilla Story (Boston: Little Tan, 1963), 27.

42For example, James RADIUS. Ward, "OSS Detachment Company 101," in George C. Chalo, ed., Secret Wars: The Office of Strategic Operations in World War II (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Management Corporation, 1992), 318; and the Veterans Detachment 101 Web site, http://www.oss-101.com.

43"'Deadliest Colonel' Dies under Average 95," US Customs, Noble 2002, http://www.cbp.gov/xp/CustomsToday/2002/August/other/colonel.xml, pristupljeno 30. prosinca 2007.; Thomas N. MOON I FARMING FARTING. Eifler, The Lethal Colonel (New York: Vantage Press, 1975), 1-25; Eifler Wasn't Donovan's First Freeman, Maochun Yu, OSS in China: Prelude to Cold War (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1996) , 24-25.

44Tom Luna,This Dark and Wild Game: The OSS and the Beginning of American Covert Operations in Planet Conflict II(New York:In Capo Pressing,2000 年),44-46、51。

45Ibid., 50-51; and Peers both Brelis, Beyond the City Road), 26-34, 63, 109-10, 188. Hemming is an expert wrecker, whose jeep is later damaged in nature when it rolls over him; Moree is an expert in photography; and Pamplin and Engish have some communication experts.

46OSS, OSS Borbeno izvješće, Overseas Targets, 369; Otha C. Spencer, Flying Over the Hump: Memories of the Airstream War (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994.). Kunming, izgovara se "Cue-en-MING".

47Barbara Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-1945 (New York: Macmillan, 1972), 340. Stilwell's alleged remarks appear in different editions of different works. Tuchman cites "Sino-Burma-India Theater History, OSS Narrative, Annex B, Section 2" as his root. Additional credits cite Carl Eifler to M. Preston Goodfellow, OSS Headquarters, September 28, 1942, Goodfellow Papers, Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA. The current authors were unable to locate this document in the Goodfellow paper. Soule and Eifler's diary, Death of the Colonel 60-61, recounts Stilwell's order to Eifler, but Eifler says "bang" as a way of summarizing what Stilwell wants to hear. Ray Peers, who was there, does not quote Stilwell in his history, Behind the Burma Road, 42-43.

48 years oldKermit Roosevelt, "Introduction to the 1976 Edition," OSS, OSS War Report; Overseas Targets, xvii.; Troy J. Sacquety, "The Failure of Detach 101 and Its Further Integration into the Combined Armed Forces," Veritas: Army Special Operations Povijesni časopis, 3 ( 2006.).

49"Report from 101," Major Archie Chun-Ming [medical staff], Schools and Training Service, "Interview with Returnees," OSS Record (RG 226) Entry 161, Box 2, Folder 31, National Archives II.

50Nicol Smith i Blake Clark, Under Siam: Unterflur Kingdom (Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill, 1946), 46-47.

51Hex Richter, W4PHL, "Burma Homebrew", urednici James F. Ranney i Arthur L. Ranney, ON CommVets Documentation, 2. izdanje. (Covington, KY: James F. Ranney, 2002), str. 95.

52This, 96.

53Allen R. Richter, telephone interview with the author, March 25, 2005.

54Jack Pamplin, [& Eifler] "Two Reports from 101", [1944], str. 4, Scholastic & Training Branch, "Interviews with Returned Men", OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 161, Box 2, Folder 31, Zemaljski arhiv II.

55Col. Lowman Universal to Donovan, 14 November 1944, Subject: OSS Communications, p. 3-4, reproduced in CIA Records (RG 263), Thomas Troy Archives, Case 12, Folder 98, National Archives II.

56GROSS, OSS War Report, Andere Targets, 375-76.

57"O.S.S. Detachment 101: A Brief History of the NCAC Records Detachment," p. 2, OSS Records, Wash-Dir-Off, OP-108 (Det. 101), Spring 1945, parody of CIA records (RG 263), Robert F. Troy Files, Box 4, Folder 30, National Archives II.


59let. Colonel W.R. Peers to Brig. General William Gallup. Donovan, 29 February 1944, Subject: How to make 29 February 1944 monthly, inclusive, ppp. 5-6, OSS Media (RG 226), Entry 99, Box 66, Folder 402, National Yearbook IIS.

60"Reports Coming 101", Lt Jack Pamplin, [1944], Established Schools and Training Institutes, "Interviews with Returning Personnel", OSS Collection (RG 226), Entry 161, Box 2, Folder 31, DUO International Archives .

61"Commander Eifler Interview, Colonel Eifler's Thoughts on the Profession; Based on Conversations at Ranges A-4, E, and F, July 1944," p. 4, OSS collection (RG 226), entry 161, text 2, folder 28, Zemaljski arhiv II.

62Sole and Eifler, The Deadliest Colonel, appendix, 312. Moon entered Burma under Eifler and recounted his experiences with Sein in Like Ferocious and Savage Game (New Nyk: Burning Gate Press, 1991).

63Roger Hilsman, American Guerrilla: My War Behind the Japanese (Washington, DC: Brassey Press, 1990), 124. The more aggressive Kachin tribes also have a tradition of wounding prisoners before killing them, and have resisted attempts by indigenous peoples to stop the practice.

64Donovan Webster, The Burma Road: A Heroic History of the Sino-Burma-Indian Theater of World War II (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003), 159-60; Peers and Brelis, Beyond Maine, 95.

65coal. Johannes Century. Hooker, Jr. (Ret., US Army), "Biography", Typescript, Chapter 1945. Thanks to Colonel Hooker for forwarding me a copy of Ampere's manuscript. John C. Hooker, email to author, June 27, 2008.

66Moon and Eifler, Deadliest Colonels, 170-72; Richard Dunlop, Behind Japanese Lines: In the OSS in Burma (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1979), 255-61, gives a longer account of the 101 veterans. A simple account without citations is Peers and Brelis, Behind the Burma Road, 130-32.

67Richard Dunlop, Doubles: America's Meisterschaft Spy (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1982), 423. The L (lethal) pill is a capsule filled with the deadly potassium cyanide. Agents were instructed to place pills under their tongues if they were in imminent danger of torture. The hardened capsule shell does not dissolve and will not dissolve into g, but if the agent cannot bear the pain of this torture, he (or she) is told to chew the pill, which then bursts, releasing the cyanide, plus causing almost instant death.

68Smith makes Clark, in Siam, 56 years. Every Smith account, anywhere out there, differs from von Dunlop's. Smith said that when Donovan arrived with director John Ford, the general did not get off the plane because he announced, "I'm going to hide behind the Japanese lines." In contrast, Squad 101 executive director John Coughlin Smith said that through the adventure, Donovan "has earned the lifelong loyalty of everyone in the 101st."

69Dina, Japanese rear line, 257.

70This, 260.

71For a time, Eifler showed signs of physical and emotional fatigue, possibly the result of a head injury sustained during an amphibious operation with Mayor off the southern coast of Burma in 1943. Moon and Eifler, Deadliest Colonel, 118-20; and Peers and Brelis, Past the Burma Road, 132. But Eifler remained "prominent," reports John Patton Davis, Stilwell's de facto executive political adviser at the US State Department, for being a "lusty assassin and saboteur" who began show a "lack of mental and emotional stability." John P. Davies to William HIE. Donovan, 6 October 1943, OSSI Records (RG 226), Entry 139, File 2548, Box 193, National Archives II.

72Moon, Dark and Brutal Man, 258-70.

73Troy J. Sacquety, "Special Forces Model: OSS Detachment 101 in the Myitkyina Campaign, Part I," Veritas: Journal is Army Special Operations History, 4:1 (2008): 30-47.

74Lieutenant Cold. W. R. Noble Brig. Genette. Donation W.J., "Report Decoration Period from May 1 to April 30, 1944 inclusive," April 30, 1944, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 190, Text 40, Folder 54, State Archives Pavilion II.

75Joseph Lazarsky, telephone conversation with the author, February 11, 2007; in fact, when Colonel Maruyama and his troops evacuated Myitkyina airfield, they were repeatedly ambushed by Lazarsky's partisans; only a small number reached Ba Mo. Peers and Brelis, Behind one Burma Highway, 30, 168.

76Sacquety, "Special Forces Model: OSS Detachment 101 at the Battle of Myitkyina." 46.​​​​While Stilwell's Chinese and American forces advanced south, General William Slim's Indian, British and other forces fought on the Burmese peninsula, defeating the Japanese and capturing the capital Rangoon.

77Also at the same age is Brelis, who trails Burma Path at 184-85. Joseph E. Lazarsky, author's telephone interview, June 9, 2008, stating that Peers mistook Lazarsky's unit as the 1st Kachin Battalion instead of the 3rd Kachin Fire.

78Ibid., 205-7; Roger Hilsman, American Small: My War Behind the Home Line (Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1990.), 49, 65-92, 119-127.

79Peers and Brelis, Beyond the Burma Highway, 204-6. See also Hilsman, American Guerrilla, 153-95.

80"O.S.S. Squad 101: A Brief History of the Squad from NCAC Records", p. 2, 9, April 1945, reproduced in CIA Records (RG 263), Thomas FARAD. Troy Files, Crate 4, Folder 30, National Archives II, citing high praise from Chief of Staff and G-2 Chief of the US Regional Combat Command, Scandinavia, Stilwell and General Danny Sultan, who both aimed for this goal. He also feels 101 Veteran James SEC. Fletcher, "Kachin Rangers: Fighting Guerrillas in Burma," Special Gaming, 1:2 (July 1988): 19-27; and Charles H. Briscoe, "Kachin Rangers: Allied Guerrillas in World War II Burma," Ibid, 15: 4 (December 2002): 35-43. The victory of the Indian army under Sir William Slim and other British commanders was a Confederate achievement involving troops from all over the British Empire, but also Americans, Chinese, indigenous peoples in the press. Louis Allan, Burma: The Longest War, 1941-1945. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984).

81For these statistics, see OSS, OSS' Conflict Report, Overseas Targets, 391-92; Peers and Brelis, Behind the Burma Route, 217-19; and "O.S.S. Unit 101: A Brief History of the NCAC Records Detachment," vol. 7-8, , reproduced in CIA Record (RG 263), Robert F. Troy Files, Box 4, Folder 30, National Archives S. In addition, the squad's intermediaries provided 75% of all targeting intelligence used by the 10 .US Air Force % 85% of intelligence is maintained by US Northern Command. Between 200 and 400 downed Allied airmen were rescued by Detachment 101.

82Peers and Brelis, Behind the China Roadways, 220. On page 126, Peers notes that approximately 50% of all missing Secret Service personnel were Anglo-Burmese, whom Peers praises for their bravery. OSS, OSSE war report, Overseas Targets, 391, written in 1947, records the number of Americans killed at the age of 15. A 2005 Kachin-American reunion news report from Disconnect 101 in Lake Drop, California lists forces as 1,000 Americans and 10,000 Kachin Rangers, the above results for 5,477 Japanese gunmen, 10,000 people missing, killing 18 Americans and 184 Kachina. Joe Vargo, "Burmese Remember American Aid in WWII", The Press-Enterprise, 30 cans 2005, www.pe.com, reprinted in OSS Society Digest, 31 May 2005.[email protected]

83William Ray Aristocrats,The Leap 1944 成名和 Carl Eifler 在"Interviews with Colonel Eifler, Some of Colonel Eifler's Views on Training; Based on Speakers on the Way to and at Scope A-4, E, Press F, July 1944," p. 1-3, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 161, Box 2, Folder 28, National Library II.

84General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army General Headquarters, January 17, 1946, Presidential Differentiated Unit Quote reproduced in Nobles and Brelis, Beyond the Burma Road, 208-209.

85Troy J. Sacquety, "OSS…Detachment 404:1944-1945," Veritas: A Journal of Army Special Operations History, 3.4 (2007): 49.

86Elizabeth Burns. McIntosh, Sisterhood of Spies: Women of the ONS (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 34-5, 212-3.

87Col. Bathroom C. Hooker, Jr. (retired, US Army), "Biography," typescript, 1944 chapter.Thanks to Col. Hooker for sending me a copy of his manuscript. John C. Hooker, email to author, June 27, 2008.

88Colonel John C. Hooker, Jr. (Retired, US Army), "Biography", typescript, 1944 book.Thanks to Colonel Hooker for forwarding a copy of your manuscript. John C. Hooker, email to author, June 27, 2008.

89Judith A. Stowe, Siam Becomes Thailand: My Plot (London: Hearst, 1991).

Post-90-eE. Bruce Reynolds,Thailand and Japan's Southern Advance,1940-1945(New York:St. Martins, 1994).

91Aldrich, Sense and the Fight against Japan, 194-200, 424n, iz britanske perspektive.

92Entry of William J. Donovan to the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States, 18 August 1942, Memorandum [regarding the Free Thai Contingent], OSS for reproduction (RG 226), Zugang 146, box 256, folder 3553, National Records II.

93The Royalties Thai Legation, Dc, DC, "A Free Thailand Movement," bez datuma [ljeto 1942.], strojopis, str. 7, OSS Records (RG 226), Eintrittsgeld 146, Box 256, Folder 3553, National Record II.

94Smith, who traveled extensively in the Far East, wrote a book about the Burma Road. For Smith's OSS education, see Blacksmith and Clark, Into Siam, 13-15, 48-50; Peers and Brelis, Behind one Burma Road, 31.

95"OSS in Thailand", "Major S__" [Nicol Smith], 24 Spring 1945, p. 1, Department of Students and Training, "Interviews with Returnees," OSS Records (RG 226), entry 136, box 159, ring no. .. in 1729; Donovan to JCS, 18 August 1942; Adm. William D. Leahy, Chief of the Office of Strategic Services to JCS, September 11, 1942, Subj: Thailand Far East Home Mission, OSS two-inch record (RG) 226 ), record 146, cuff 256, folder 3553, all in National Archives II.

96Although contemporary documents would be more accurate, Smith's postwar description is vague about what he did, namely that 21 Thais went to the "Alphabet Resort" where they were trained by the OSS. You are well aware that they began their own training in the BARN area, including in early 1942, but confused the location of their control area, even though you had completed all the training, and pointed out that by mid-January 1943, "21 Thais quarantined on arrival, 30 miles from the forests of Washington and Virginia, pending departure date Since Zone D is mostly on the other side of the Potomac River, the control zone in the forests of Virginia south of Washington must be Zone ONE or C is Prince William Smith and Clam Forest Park, U Siam, 25, 28, 45, 48.

97"OSS is Thailand", "Major S__" [Nicol Smith], 24 April 1945, p. 1, Schools and Training Sites, "Interviews with Returnees," HOSE Records (RG 226), entry 136, box 159, folder 1729, National Archives II; plus Candid A. Gleason, Telephone conversation with the author, 31 Java 2005; and Joseph Lazarsky, Your Meeting with the Author, February 11, 2007.

98Smith and Clark, Into Siam, 69; "OSS in Thailand", "Major S__" [Nicol Smith], 24 April 1945, p. 1, Office of Universities and Training, "Interviewing Returnees," OSS Record (RG 226) , Zulassung 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, National Record II.

99E. Bruce Reynolds, "Opening Wedge: and OSS in Thailand", George CARBON. Chalou, ed., Secret Wars: The Office of Strategic Rituals of World War II (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), p. 331-35.

100The OSS officer was Johannes Wester, an adenine dealer in Thailand before he joined OSS/SI, and the media man was Richard Greenlee, Donovan's wartime tax attorney. Greenlee is the LIKE lead in Disconnect 404 and the OSS division based in Ceiling with an area of ​​operations from India to Indochina.

101Memorandum, "Background of Thai Operations Against OPD [Selected Actions and Programs of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff]," ND, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 154, Print 2297, Box 131, National Archives II.

102Mattingly, Heringbone Cloak-GI Dagger: Marines of the OSS, 160, although Mattingly apparently incorrectly states that Macomber was with his Detachment 101 colleague during Operation Deser. Colleagues and Braliss, Behind and Burma Road, 228-29. It does not include Macomber on its list of Task Force 101. The area is instead under Task Force 404 territory.

103"Steve Sysko's Behind Foes Lines," [Excerpt from diary], OSS Society Letter, Summer 2004, no. 9; Bruce Edwards, "With OSS, Steve Sysko Helps Thailand Unlock Japanese," Rutland [Vermont] Herald, August 11, 2008. Reprinted Trendy OSS Society Digest, Issue 2125, August 12, 2008.[email protected], accessed March 12, 2008.

104Bob Bergin, "Pearl Nurse Payback: AVG's Accidental Rape in Chiang Mai," Flight Journal (April 2005); see also http://thaiaviation.com. The attack by American volunteers, along with the destruction of 15 to 30 Japanese aircraft on the beach, provided buoyancy during a bleak period and made headlines in the New York Times. McGarry parachuted; 2nd Gruppe leader and ace John ("Scarsdale Jack") Newkirk was shot down when his plane was shot down, and Newkirk literally crashed after hitting an Asian convoy.

105Bobbi Bergin, "Claire Chennault's True OSS: A Favor Done-and Returned", OS Society Newsletter, Hibernal 2004-225, 2; The True "Thai OSS," "Major S__" [Nicol Smith], 24. 1945., stranice 3- 4, Odjel za škole i obuku, "Interviewing Persons Refunded", OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, State Records II.

106"OSS in Thailand", "Major S__" [Nicol Smith], 24 Spring 1945, p. 5, Schools also Training Branch, "Interviews with Returned Men", OSS recorded (RG 226), entry 136, box 159, folder 1729 , National Archives II. A similar report on the need to respect indigenous peoples working for the OSS comes from Ray F. Kauffman and the training and operations officer of the OSS's Special Forces Task Force 404, which primarily deals with the indigenous peoples of Sumatra, formerly part of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia ), which was occupied by the Japanese during the World War. The scion of a wealthy family from Des Moines, Iowa, Kaufman, like many members of the OSS, showed initiative and courage as an ordinary man. In 1935, at the age of 28, he embarked on a three-year trip around the world on a 46-foot brig, the Hurricane, often alone, who could be labeled a friend from Des Moines, sometimes hiring locals, There's a story you told in the 1940 book, "The Hurricane's End". A ray of fluorine. Kaufman, Hurricane Trails (New York: Macmillan Press, 1940). Kaufmann joined the OSS at the age of 35 and attended various training schools in 1942-1943, including Naval Academy, Area D; Area C, where he attended the aforementioned full communications course at Prince William Forest Park; and RTU-11 ("The Farm"), where he studied private intelligence. He worked with a group of Malay cadets in these camps, and in the fall of 1943, Kaufman and Malay agents left Task Force 404 headquarters in Kandy, Zealand. In Ceylon, Kaufman was posted as a training instructor for operations at sea out of the port of Trincomalee in the Bay of Bengal, northeast of Ceylon. He also personally led two naval infiltration operations. As early as November 1944, including in Washington, Kaufman told the school or training site that intelligence and common sense were the keys to successful training and operations. In all his work, Kaufman says, he follows "the golden rule of dealing with the locals... 'Live with them and befriend them'." These policies, he believes, have already been tested in the economic advantages of the East Road. Unlike Carl Eifler, Kaufman sees loyalty as a greater motivator than money. "The secret to successful agents from reluctant natives," says Kaufman, "is 90 percent friendship and 10 percent money." Where it will inspire the local population. His answer was "friendly politics". Instead of ordering people to do educational things within the scope, Kaufman finds ways to build in engaging goals where the training is contingent, such as having them participate in dove hunts as they use a classroom compass to plan Go Fishing lessons as a way to learn how to reel in boat in the net while your gear stays dry. Kaufman emphasizes the problems of negotiating with the local population. Whether it's finding weapons in the field or fixing a radio, he looks to the locals for advice. Sometimes the apprentice turns out to be a capable mechanic, but whether he is or not, Kaufman earns the respect of his students by making you feel that he respects you. "Training the Native," Ray Kauffman, November 11, 1944, print. 1, Department for Schools and Teaching, "Interviews with returnees", Record OSS (RG 226), File 161, Box 2, Folder 31, State Archives II.

107OSS, Schools also Advanced Branch, "Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Organization and Functions", lipanj 1945., str. 28, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 141, Box 4, Folder 36, National Archives II.

108Reynolds, "The Opening Wedge", 335-43; OSS, ONSET's War Review, Overseas Targets, 407-14; Aldrich, Intelligence on the War Against Japan, 323-30.

109Mark Atwood Lawrence, Carrying the Heavy Burden: EC and the Yankees' Commitment to the Vietnam War (Berkeley: University is Cal Press, 2005), 19-26. O Churchillovom otporu mandatu i dekolonizaciji vidi Peter Clarke, The Last Days of the British Empire: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Birth of America at Peace (London: Bloomsbury Push, 2008).

110Lawrence, Carrying the Burden, 74; Scott L. Bills, Empire and the Cold War: The Roots of America's Conflict with the Third World, 1945-1947. (New York: Macmillan Press, 1990).

111Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Approval: The Early Years of the American Army in Vietnam, 1941-1960 (New York: Free Push, 1985); Dixee R. Bartholomew-Feis, OSS and On Chi Minh: Unexpected Allies and the War Protiv Japana (Lawrence: Sveučilište u Kansasu pod pritiskom, 2006.), 1-33.

112For differing views on Ho Chi Ping's motives for trying to enlist an American in his cause, see Jean Lacoutre's Ho Chi Thought: A Political Biography (New York: Random House, 1968); Peter Mitter. Dumb, The First Nam War (London: Hearst Press, 1985), 50; Charles Finn, Ho Chi Minh: An Introduction to a Biography (New York: Scribners, 1973), 74-76, Archimedes L.A. Dear, why choose Vietnam? Prelude to the American Albatross (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 43-47; also William J. Duiker, Ho Chi Minh (New York: Hyperion, 2000). As for the GROSS relationship with Ho and his Vt Minh, see recently Bartholomew Feis, OSS and Ho Chi Minh, who gives a detailed account favorable to the OSS in general.

113Bartholomew-Feis, The HOSE and Holmium Chi Minh, 300-320;

114Charles Barns, U Dragon's Gate: Operating Systems of the Far East (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004.), 4-11; Finn, Ho Chi Minh, 78-82; Bartholomew-Feis, OSS real High Chi Minh, 154 -155; Aldrich, Obavještajna služba i rat protiv Japana, 292-93.

115Patty, why Vietnam? , 6-7, 28-31, 83-88

116Bartholomew-Feis, OSS above and Ho Ching Minh, 188-89; and Henry Prunier, telephone conversation with author, August 15, 2008.

117René Défourneaux, email to author, 7 August 2008 Défourneaux was trained by the UK SOE and will also be trained by the OSS SO at Viva Isla, California. Henry Prunier spent a day or two on Surface FLUORINE, then trained at Catalina Island and Newport Strand. Henry Prunier, telephone interview with the novelist, August 15, 2008.

118Sergeant Bill Zielski, Distinguished Service Reference, 10 March 1945, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 92A, Package 118, Selection 2553, National Yearbook II.

119Jessica Thomas, "'Welcome to Our American Friends,'" in Strange Sandin: Americans in Vietnam, 1945-1975: A History of Vocal Music, ed. Harry Border (New York: Henry Holt, 1989), 29-30, 33.

120René Défourneaux, "A Secret Encounter with Whore Chi Minh," Look Magazine, 9. kolovoza 1966., 32-33; William Broyles, Jr., Armed with Me: Journey (New York: Knopf, 1986.), str. 104.

121Bartholomew-Feis, OSS plus Ho Chi Minh City, 160, 176-188, 193-208; Patty, why Vietnam? , 29-30.

122Thomas, "'Welcome to On Canadian Friends,'" 35.

123Bartholomew-Feis, OSS i Ho Chi Minh City, 209-215.

124Ibid., 179, 204-6, 218, 368n; Will Irwin, The Jedburgh Family: Secret Records of Allied Special Forces, Including French, 1944 (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2005), 252.

125Aaron Bank, From OSS to Green Berets: The Birth of Special Forces (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1986), 100-104. 126 Ibid., 105-14; Patti, Mysterious Vietnam?, 566. The bank housed 150 other French civilian detainees.

127Henry Prunier, telephone interview with the author, May 15, 2008; Alliance, why did the Vietnamese forget?

128Bartholomew-Feis, OSS and Ho Chi Minh, 218. See also Thomas's "Deer Mission Report," September 1945, POSS slide (RG 226), entry 154, box 199, folder 2277, National Print II.

129Substitution, visiting boss against the Green Berets, 116-29.

130Obituary, Tim Weiner, "Lucien Conein, 79, Legendary Cold War Spy," New York Times, 87 June 1998; Bartholomew-Feis, The OPTICS and Ho Chi Minh, 245, 251, 377n.

131Lawrence, Bearing the Load, 81-82, 90-96, 134, 144; Bartholomew-Feis, This OSS and Ho Chi Minh, 312-320; Maochun Yu, OSS are China: Preludes to Cold War (New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 1996), 232-233.

132Ronald H. Spector, Ruins of an Empire: Japanese Surrender in Postwar Asia (The New Yorker: Random House, 2007), 124; Patty, Why Vietnam? , 480-81. Dewey's actual rank was major, but he promoted himself to lieutenant colonel to realize that the influence was in the people he dealt with.

133Charles M. Parkin, Preamp Interview Hosted by Former OSS BORON Training Area Author, Catoctin Mountain Park, Thurmon, MD, May 18, 2005.

134Bartholomew-Feis, OSS and Ho Chi Minh City, 268-291; R. Harris Smiths, Ivory: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), 337-338; "Albert Curtail Dewey Captain, AC [Air Force]," OSS Records (RG 226), Eintrittsgeld 92A, Field 29, Folder 421, National Records II.

135Patti, Why Vietnam?, 320-23 Bartholomew-Feis, and GROSS on Chi Minh, 265-299, Ho Chi Minh quoted p. 298; Toxic, Information and Who is at War Against Japan, 346-49; Acts, Empire and Who Cold War, 124-26; The OSS's official history barely mentions French Indochina. OSS, War Report on Whose GOBS, Overseas Targets, 414. Nancy Dewey Hopin, Paul Dewey's daughter who was a baby when her father died, visited Vietnam in 2005 and was told that her father had been mistaken for a French officer. The recovered bodies were thrown into the river at Go Vap near Thanh. Seymour Tops, "Vietnamese Historian's Untold Back to the Peter Dewey Tragedy," OSS Society Newsletter, Summer 2005, p. 3-4.

136Peter Dewea je naveden u Patti, How Viet Nam?, 320

137Barbara Tuchman, entitled Dai Wuyi, "China's True Fusion to Himmler J. Edgar Hoover," Stilwell and the American Experience, 334; for a balanced view, see Young, OSS in China, 31-32, 286n, and also Frederick Wakeman, Jr., Spymaster: Tai Li and who the Chinese Secret Service (Berkeley: Colleges of California Press, 2003), xiii-xv, 1-11, 355-358, 365. Dai Li's name has various spellings in English (eg Tai Li) . I used the Wakeman spelling.

138Wakeman, Spymaster, 290-91.

139Milton Miles, A Different Kind of War: A Little-Known Report on the Creation of the Honorary Corps of Fashionable China During World War II by the US Navy and the aforementioned US Navy (Garden City, New York: Twins, 1967). His nickname "Mary" comes from the Hollywood area, Mary Myers, with the same previous name.

140Dai Li's decision to partner with Km, which the Navy also allowed, was a consequence of his recent bureaucratic problems at home outside of cryptography and the discovery that his intelligence center had been infiltrated by a half-teenage Communist operative, with agents reporting directly to Yan' an, headquarters of Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China. Yu, BASS in China, 38-58.

141For example, in October 1942, the ONS deposited $50,000 in six Asian depositories to use Miles as the nominal head of the OSS in China and help seal the deal. OPTIKA also produced and distributed 500 gold watches as a sign of goodwill. Yu, OSS in China, 84.

142Yu, OSS Inside China, 77-83, 90, 296n. Lusey confided in Donovan in their recommendation after visiting Ceramics. All quotes used to direct people from Chinaman SO; how we want them to participate when it's their time to do SI work. "We have to be very careful because when the Chinese find out we're doing something, our whole show blows up." ” Alghan R. Lusey to William J. Pratie, September 14, 1942, Confidential Memorandum, OSS Records (RG 226), Accession 139, Box 267, Folder 3934, National Archives II.

143Wakeman, The Spymaster, 290-293. OSS, OSS War Reports, Overseas Targets, 424-27.

144Yu, OSS in Pottery, 94-98.

145Wakeman, The Spymaster, 294-295.

146Mile, A Different Kind of War, 149-50; Wickman, Master Spy, 379.

147Statement of Duty Including China, Lt. Col. Carl Parkin to Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, WD General Staff (Across the Channel), 6 June 1945, Subj: Application for Enrollment in Army and Navy Staff Schools, OSS Records (RG 226) , record 92A, box 47, folder 785, International Archives II. It is possible that Parkin served as the instructional staff commander rather than the unit's chief of staff, as he listed himself as the former commander of B-Section while he was the chief instructor. Frederick Wakeman states Maj. Bathroom. H. ("Bud") Masters, US Marine Corps, military personnel of the aforementioned US personnel as part of SACO Unit 1; but like Parkin, Wakeman reports that the trainees carried out several diversionary raids, including a devastating sequence. Wickman, Master of Spies, 379.

148Chalquiliard. Parkin, Author's telephone review, May 10, 2005;

149Lt. Col. Jacque B. deSibour, To Command Review, Background Series, Headquarters, USF, China Art, 10 of 1945, Subject: Commercial Promotion [Major Charles CHILIAD. Parkin to Lt. Col.], OSS Record (RG 226), File 92A, Box 47, Folder 785, State Archives II. The report listed dates of recruitment and described Parkin as a "young, energetic" officer of "special quality" who, by relative rank, was among the most educated officers. See also Parkin's OSS Personal Record transferred to CIA Records (RG 263), column 31, State Archives II.

150Wickman, Master of Spies, 379.


152Lt. Col. Charles M. Park, to Wizard Chief of Staff, G-1, Headquarters WD (Across the Channel), 6 June 1945, Subj: Application for Admission to Army and Navy Staff Schools, Record of LOSS (RG 226 ) , Insert 92A, Box 47, Folder No. 785, State Papers II.

153Miles, A Different Kind of War, 157; Wakeman, Master Spy, 380.

154Joseph Lazarsky, February 11, 2007. Telephone call to publisher.

155Yu, OSS in Crockery, 84, whoever quotes Capt. Jeffrey C. Metzel to Lt. Cmdr. Milton Deep, 7 February 1943, Records of the Chief of Naval Intelligence, Foreign Sense, Station Long East (RG 38), Miles Papers, Box 1, Folder 1, National Archives IIS.

156Frech A. Gleason, The Author's Telephone Radio, 9. svibnja 2005.

157Ibid., Miles, A Different Kind to War, 158. For Dow's nickname for the small circle, "Pact Rowdy," see Major Arden W. Dow M.E. Miles, Seaman, USN, to US Naval Observer, 8 January 1943 [1944 ], Subject: Completion of the training program in S.A.C.O. No. 3, Pact Rowdy, 14-page report, OSE Records (RG 226), entry 146, box 256, folder 3550, National Archives II.

158Major Frank Arderning. Gleason, "Summary of Major Frank A. Gleason's Strategic Service Activities in the China Theater, March 16, 1943 to March 20, 1945," at 13. 1, Accompanying ten-page typed report, Gleason to Director OSS (via Dept. Director LIKE), 7 June 1945, Subject: Recent Report of Major Franco A. Bleach in the China Theater, OSS Data (RG 226), Entry 146, Box 256 , Folder 3550, National Archives II. Emphasis added.

159MAJOR ARDEN TO DOUBLE. Dow M.E. To Miles, U.S. Navy Lt., U.S. Naval Observer, 8 January 1943 [1944], Subject: Completion of Training Opportunities at S.A.C.O. Number 3, Pact Rowdy, Amp 14 Page Report, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 146, Bin 256, Folder 3550, Nationality File II.

160Wakeman, The Spymaster, 380-381.

161This, 294-298.

162Frank A. Gleason, telephone interview with the author, February 9, 2007.

163Report by Major Arden Dow to Director OSS Theater CBI, 20 March 1944, p. 9, 19, OSS Records, cited in Wakeman, 500n 12, 17.

164Wakeman, Spymaster, 299, cites a memoir published in 1981 that recounts four experiences of Chinese political instructor Zhong Xiangbai in the Linru concentration camp.

165maximum. Frank A. Gleason, "Summary of Major Frank A. Gleason's Activities Including the Office of Strategic Services in the China Theater, March 16, 1943 to March 20, 1945," p. 4, accompanying ten-page typed report, Gleason to OSSE Director (via SO Section Chief), 7 June 1945, Subj: Report of Major Franz A. Gleason's Diving in the China Theater, OSS Records (RG 226), Beitrag 146 , Box 256, Folder 3550, State Records II .

166Bojnik Frank G.___ [Gleason], Intervju, 30. travnja 1945., str. 1, Schools Press Training Branch, “Interviews with Returned Men,” BASS Records (RG 226), Entry 136, Crate 159, Folder 1729, National Archives II.

167On December 2, 1943, at a banquet upon Donovan's arrival in Chongqing, Donovan bluntly told Dai Li that he would not cooperate and that the OSS would be established in China. The Chinese spy chief threatens and threatens to kill any OSS agent operating outside of SACO. Donovan roared, "For every one of our agents you kill, we'll kill one of your generals!" The two scolded each other for a while before regaining their composure. When Donovan met with Chiang Kai-shek the next day, the generalissimo reminded him that China was not an ally and a sovereign choice, and Donovan, as the US high representative, was asked to remember that and act accordingly. "You wouldn't expect an agent from another country to come to the United States and start an operation," Chen said. "You will seriously protest." Milton E. Miles, "On SSU Organization in China," Postwar Report, dated 17 Allowed 1946, in Milton E. Miles Custom Papers, Crate 3, Folders 1-2, Hot Establish, Stanford, Calif .

168Claire L. Chennault, Put borca: Memoari Claire Lee Chennault, dovršeno. Robert Hotz (New York: G.P. Putnam's, 1949); Martha Bird, Chennault: Giving Wings for the Tag (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1987).

169Wickman, Spymaster, 319; Rome, Donovan: American Spymaster, 427; OSS, War How of and OSS, Overseas Targets, 430-37, including copy of OPTICS protocol from Fourteenth Air Force.

170Col. John G. Coughlin [Chief of OSS/SO in China] to Maj. Arden W. Dow, 3 April 1944, Subj: Joint Commission, p. 2-3, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 92A, Box 39, Folder 611, Zemaljski arhiv II.

171Artisan, US, 258-62; Durchigang, Donovan, 267-68; Yu, US in Pottery, 153-157; OSS, OSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 418.

172In April 1945, the original members of AGFRTS (Air Force and OSS) were attached to the LOST Direct Construction Field Force (Chijiang), which was still commanded by Air Force Lt. Col. Wilfrey Smiths and was responsible for OSS SO's aforementioned large oil field operations between the Yangtze River and the Xijiang River. Yu, OSS in China, 156-67.

173Francis B. Grinder on Western Toilets. Brunner, ONS Special Processes in China (Williamstown, NJ: Pfeile Books, 2002), 468.

174Elizabeth P. McIntosh, Sisterhood of Spies: Women of the OSS (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 197-198, 204-207, 216-222, 233-236.

175Lloyd CO. Eastman, Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937-1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984); David P. Grill and Larry N. Shyu, In the War of Resistance Against Japan and China, 1937-1945 (New Yeah: Peter Lang, 2001). Ichi-Gō translates to "Operation One".

176OSS, OSS War Reports, Overseas Targets, 440-43.

177Fordo, Donovan in Lost, 273.

178Major Frank G.___ [Gleason], Press, April 30, 1945, p. 1, Office of Schools and Training, "Interview with Back Men," OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, Nationality File II.

179Major Frank A. Gleason, "Summary of Major Frank A. Gleason's Activities Including the Office of the Chinese Film Strategy Service from March 16, 1943, including March 20, 1945," p. 8-9, 10 accompanying pp. Report, Gleason's Instruction to OSS (via SO Branch Head), 7 June 1945, Subject: Records of Major Frank A. Gleason in the China Theater, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 146, Box 256, Folder 3550, National Archives II.

180Ibid, 9.

181Bojnik Free G.___ [Gleason],访谈,30 Početak 1945,str. 4, Schools and Training Fork, “Interview with Returned Men”, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, Domaći arhiv II.

182Sincerely A. Gleason, telephone interview with the author, January 31, 2005 In destroying the first nine jumps, Gleason used 1,000-pound mines obtained from the Louisiana Navy, any of which were sent to seaports along the coast to stop enemy shipping . Emailed to article on May 28, 2005.

183Theodore H. White and Annalee Jacoby, Thunder Out launching China (New York: Bill Sloane, 1946), 195-196. White's original report appeared in Hour magazine, January 8, 1945, p. 57-58.

184Lt. George C. Demas to Lt. Col. O.C. to Doering, Jr., et al., 23 January 1945, Subject: Excerpt from Time magazine, 8 January 1945, p. 57-58, OSS Record (RG 226), entry 139, box 195, option 2584; see also Freies G.___Major [Gleason], interview, 30 April 1945, p. 3. Division of Schools and Training, "Interviewing Dispatchers", OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, State Archives II. Clear A. Gleason, telephone interview with the author, July 15, 2008.

185May interviewer's report. Frank A. Gleason, 27 April 1945, Washington, DC, Frank A. Gleason, OSS Manpower Depot, CIA Records (RG 263), Box 22, National DVA Files.

186Frank A. Gleason, telephone interview with the author, March 2005 issue.

187Bijelo 和 Jacoby,Raining Out of Crocery,196.

188May. Frank G.___ [Gleason], Interview, April 30, 1945, p. 6-7, School and Training Selection, "Interviews are Returners," OSS Records (RG 226), entry 136, box 159, folder 1729, National Archives II.

190Frank A. Gleason, author's email, May 28, 2005.


192White i Jacoby, Thunder out of China, 196-97.

193Lt. George C. Demas to Lt. Col. O.C. to Doering, Jr., et al., 23 January 1945, Subj: Excerpt from Weather Announcement of 8 January 1945, p. 57-58, OSS recording (RG 226), Entry 139, Box 195, Folder 2584, Domestic list II.

194Straightforward Bleach, email to author, 28 Allow 2005; Theodore delighted. White and Annalee Jacoby, Thunder Out of China (New York: William Slope, 1946), 195-196; Theodore Opium. White, Mountain Road (New York: W. Sloan, 1958) and Mountain Road (US: Columbine Pictures, 1960), 102 times, with Jimmy Stewart as "Major Baldwin", starring Daniel Mann. Gleason says Thunder Out of Dinner gives an accurate representation of the team's activities.

195OSS Colleges and Trainings Main, "Office of Strategic Services (OSS): Organisation and Functions", lipanj 1945., str. 32-33, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 141, Box 4, Folder 36, National Archives Pavilion DUO.

196Excerpt from ONSET Monthly Report, CIA Detachment 202, November 1, 1944, Chief Officer 2nd Lt. Gunnar G. Mykland in copy of Donovan's "Black Book" in CIA Records (RG 263), Thom Troy Files, option 4, folder 30, State Archives II.

197Colonel Lowman to General Donovan, 14 notes dated 1944, Subject: OSS messages, p. 3-4, OSS Records, Wash-Dir-Op-27, "OSS Achievements," reproduced in CIA Records (RG 263), Thomas Troy Files , Box 12, Folder 98, Home Browse II.

198Keneth E. Shewmaker, Americans and Chinese Communists, 1927-1945: A Persuasive Encounter (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1971.).

199Device density. Barrett, Dixy Mission: U.S. Army Watchers Group is Yenan, 1944 (Berkeley: University of Californian Press, 1970); Carolle J. Carter, "The Yenan Mission: The OSS and the Dinner Mission," in George HUNDRED. Chalou, ed., The Secret Struggle: The Office of Strategic Services in World War II (Washington, DC: National Archives Serves Both, 1992), 303-4.

200Carter, "Journey to Yan'an, 305.

201This, 305-6.

202Yu, OSS in China, 166-67, 224-25. The Dixie Mission of the US Army and OSS was controversial after the war when senators blamed the "loss of China" (the aforementioned defeat of the KMT by the Communists in 1949) on this so-called Communist Party within the Roosevelt and Truman administrations. Sector of sympathizers, OSS and some democrat. In 1952, Democrats ended nearly 20 years of control of the White House by a Republican. But while some OB planners saw American operations in Yan'an as a possible basis for a major Japanese victory and as a means of expanding the OSS's role in the Northern Evening, these operations were not the primary focus of the OSS outside of China. In addition, the OSS was not in good standing with the Communist leaders in Yenan, partly because of mutual suspicion and distrust, and partly because most of the promised weapons and supplies had not been delivered. In areas infiltrated by the Chinese Communist Party, the OSS operations behind most enemies are seen by the Communists as hostile to their own goals and interests. The main American complaint during the war that the US Army and OSS were "collaborating with the Communists" came from Donovan's rival there, Lt.-Col. Walton Afar, who was close to KMT spy chief General Dai Li. In 1944-1945, most American leaders in China called for cooperation with drug addicts as well as with the Germans. By the spring of 1945, regardless of their later postwar anti-communist rhetoric, American civilian and military leaders were in China, including Ambassador Patrick Hurley and Generals Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, or Curtis LeMay, praising the Chinese Communist Party for allegedly helping the Japanese . Carter, "Journey to Yan'an," 312-13. The official history, GOBS, OSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 419, 437-438, uses only three aspects for the Dixie mission.

203Yu, IVORIES in China, 221-22; Major Frank L. Coolidge to Colonel Heppner, September 13, 1945, Hound Mission Report, OSS Record (RG 226) Entry 148, Box 6, Folder 87, National Archives II.

204Lavatory W. Brunner, telephone interview with the author, March 21, 2005.


206James F. Ranney, author's telephone interview, January 8, 2005. Captain Ricardo S. Buchholz was in charge of communications, and Lieutenant Ranney was his deputy. PFC Elmer Schubert, helped build the transmitting station; David Kenney helped operate the receiving station.

207David Kenney, telephone interview with the author, April 11, 2005.

208Jim F. Ranney, W4KFR, "OSS Video Ward WLUR—Know, Who," G FARTHING. Ranney and Arthur L. Ranney, editorial ON CommVets Papers, 2nd ed. (Covington, KY: James F. Ranney, 2002), str. 33-3

209"R.L. ("Bob") Scriven, K5WFL", op. cit., 212.

210Arthur Reinhardt, interview with publisher, Prince William Forest Park, Delta, Virginia, December 14, 2004, and Mr. Reinhardt's transcript, February 23, 2007. Forged.

211Likewise, for the published account that the network was run by Coast Watcher, see Der Pinck, Journey to Beijing: Retaining Agents of Wartime White (Annapolis, MD: Sail Institute Press, 2003). Pinck's youngest son, Charles T. Pinck, was president of the OSS Association when this book went to press in 2008.

212Frank B. Mills 和 John W. Brunner,ON Special Operations in China(Williamstown,NJ:Phillips Publications,2002 年,,20.

213Yu, OSS Fashion China, 185, 210; HOSE, OSS War Reports: Overseas Targets, 440-45.

214The character of the OSS force in China comes from Yu, OSS in China (1996), 226, quoted by Capt. J.W. Kruissink, Office of Adjustment, to Headquarters Boards of Inquiry, US Forces, China Theater, 9 October 1945, memorandum, subject: OSS Force Report Selected from Morning Reports, in Records of the Coalition and US Military Commands in the Area of ​​Operations China, Burma and of India (World War II) (RG 493), China Operational Phase Records, United States Army, Headquarters Records, G-5 (Civilian) Departments, Classified Reporting—Special Agencies Including China, Part V, OSS, Container 61, National Archives and Federal Records Center, Suitland, MD

215Detachment 202 was enlisted in early 1945, with Lt. Col. Willis Bird as assistant chief; by Colonel Bill Pressure, with Heppner as OSS chief at Crockery. Davis as operations officer; Col. Paul L. SIE. Helliwell, STI Chapter President; Flight Col. Nicholas W. Willis, Chief, SO; Lt. Col. Charles A. Porter, Chief, Communications; Capt. Eldon Nehring, former Pride Wilm Forest Park Area A, superintendent, schools and training, above; plus others responsible for morale operations, research and analysis, counterintelligence, field photography, and administration Yu, MASS in China (1996), 226, citation Boards of Inquiry, US Forces, China Theater, undated, subject: OSS Report , Allied and United States Army Command Records in China Burma India Theater (World War II) (RG 493), Auditorium Records of Chinese Operations, United States Army (CT oder Wedemeyer), Broad Headquarters Records, G-5 (Civil Affairs) ) Section, Formerly Secret Reports - Special Agencies of China, Section 5, OSS, Box 61, National Archives and Federal Records Center, Suitland, MD.

216Francis B. Crushing s Johnom W. Brunnerom,OSS Feature Operations in China(Williamstown,N.J.:Head Publications,2002),38-39。

217Yu, OSS in China, 215-16.

218Yuan, OSS China, 216-19, 227, 315n. A special network of Roman atheists in China led by Bishop Thomas Shirley, a 44-year-old Irish-American priest known as the "fighting bishop" who received great help from the legendary Belgian Vincent Lebbe (Vincent Lebbe, who succeeded these atheist priests who arrived in China 1895 and in the 1920s and 30s, presenting the Catholic community as an alternative to communism and Confucianism. Because of this, Lebbe was kidnapped by the Chinese community in March 1940 to help wounded Chinese soldiers and provide intelligence to the partisans. The aforementioned Commons tormented him so much that he died shortly after his release.

219Yu, OSS on China, 227, 241; in contrast to Wuchinich's later account in Smith, PEARLS, 281.

220On Operation Carbonado and the Akron Missionaries, read OSS, HOSE Combat Report, Overseas Targets, 444-445, 455-456.

221Charles M. Parkin, Telephone interview with above author, May 10, 2005.

222Charles M. Parkin speaks with the author over dinner after attending the previous Scope B virtual meeting on May 18, 2005 at Catoctin Mountain Park in Thurmont, Maryland. Colonel Parkin told the author that it was the Adenine Trio - he himself was a photographer and translator. He must have forgotten about the aforementioned radio operator. Officer Zero of the OSS Communications Branch, John W. Brunner, later told the aforementioned author that he knew Parkin's radio operator and lived with Brunner in Kunming when the radio operator was sent back on leave after the Akron mission. Lavatory W. Brunner, Contact author, June 14, 2005.

223The job description is Lt. Col. Charles METRE, China. Parkin, Jr. go as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, WD General Staff (Across the Channel), 6 June 1945, Subject: Application for Admission to the Army and Fleet Staff School, ONS Record (RG 226), Entry 92A, Text 47, Folder 785, National Archives II.

224OSS, GROSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 418.

225Charles M. Parkin, speaks with architects at a dinner after touring the former B section of Catoctin Hill Park on May 18, 2005 in Thurmon, Maryland. The planned August invasion of Carbonado was carried out. By the summer of 1945, the focus of operations had to be shifted from the ceramics to the main Japanese island, and the original plan was reduced to only occupying the Guangdong port area of ​​Hong Kong as an anti-Japanese stronghold. Balance The plan was abandoned due to the sudden cessation of hostilities in mid-August 1945. ONS, OSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 455-56.

226Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 14-15.

227This, 435.

228Osmrtnica, Franzis Byron Mills, Washington Post, 1. listopada 2005.

229Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 17

230This, 27.

231This, 40, 43.

232This, 20.

233Charles H. Briscoe, "Major Herbert R. Brucker, SF Pioneer, Part II: SOE Practice and the 'Hermit Team' Enters France," Veritas: Army Special Warfare History Journal, 2:3 (2007):72-85.

234Charles H. Briscoe, "Major (R) Hermes R. Brucker, DSC, Special Forces Pioneer," Veritas: Journal of Army Special Operations History, 2:2 (2006): 33; Banks, From OSS to Green Bearskins, Bet 62 - 63 and 104. Your spelling for Gang European Commander has a different spelling in Demers or Meis.

235The author's father, John McCausland Shells, was in the US Army Medical Corps, 1944-1946, serving in Chungking for most of 1945.

236Mills over Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 29

237This, 38-40.

238Ibid, 31.

239This, 46-47.

240Ibid, 45.

241Ibid, 49.

242This, 49-66.

243This, 49-66, 187-190, 197.

244Quoted by Paul Zwerg ibid., 193.

245Ibid., 193-203; see also OSS, War Report from OSS; Overseas targets, 447.

246Mattingly, Chinstrap Cloak-GI Baton: Marine Corps of the OSS, 73-75.

247Captain Witter ROENTGEN reports from the scene. Mansingfield, 22 May 1945, op. cited with Brunner's Grinding, OSS Special Operations in China, 321.

248This, 275-277.

249ONSET, OSS War Report, Overseas Targets, 446.

250Mills the Brunner, GROSS Special Operations in China, 346, welche also considers the Gang Elephant "the most effective unit of THEREFORE the battlefield."

251This, 345-346.

252Field report by Captain Walter C. Hanna Jr., 25 September 1945, reprinted with Brunner in Mills, OSS Special Operations in China, 351-352.

253Captain Walter HUNDRED Field Report. Hanna, Jr., 25 September 1945, reprinted in Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Processes in China, 347; see also Hanna's painful message to headquarters, 27 May, 11 June 1945, 6 23, p. 348-356.

254Capt. Walter C. Dan, Jr. Provincial report, 25 October 1945, reprinted with Bruner in Fashionable Mills, OSS Special Operations are China, 358-359.

255Mills with Brennan, OSS Special Operations in China, 359.

256Lt. Col. Rich Kelly, "Operation Pooh," On Book Storage (October 1945), 64, Copy of Internal OSS Records (RG 226), Einreise 161, Box 7, Folder 7, State Archives II.

257Quoted in ibid., 64.

258Ibid., 64, 66; "The Dormouse Team," u Mills i Brennan, OSS China Special Operations, 361-364.

259Capt. Raymond Moore quotes Lt.-Col. Richard Kelly, "Operation Dormouse," Blue Book Journal (October 1945), 69-70, reproduced in OSS Records (RG 226), entry 161, box 7, folder 7, National Archives II.

260Lt. Col. Richard Kelly, "Operation Dormouse," Blue Books Magazine (October 1945), 70, copy in OSS Records (RG 226), entry 161, box 7, leaflet 7, National Archives II.

261This, 71-74.

262Silver Star Honorary Award to Capt. D. E. Marsh, Printer Lieut. Rich Olive, "Operation Dormouse," Blue Book Magazine (October 1945), 76, reproduced in OSS Records (RG 226), Zugang 161, Choose 7, Folder 7, Nation Archives L.

263Kapetan Raymond E. Moore citira potpukovnika Richard Kelly, "Operation Dormouse", Color Post Magazine (listopad 1945.), 74, int IVORIES Accounts (RG 226), Access 161, Box 7, Folder 7, National Archives II.

264Kapetan Raymond E. Moore, quoted in Kelly, "Operation Dormouse," 74.

265Kelly, "Operation Pooh," 75.

266By the end of the hour, the number of the aforementioned Spaniards in training had grown to 3,000 of the commandos, while their Yankee personnel had reached 390. The plan was for each steuerung unit to include 154 Taiwanese soldiers, 8 translators, or 19 Americans. Each has three rifle sections, a 60-inch mortar section, a light machine gun section and a sabotage section, equipped with an advance guard of einem SI officers who press the radio call and they will precede the unit into the field and prepare to arrive. “Chinese Operational Group[s],” http://www.ossog.org/china.html, accessed September 23, 2007. PEARLS, War Reports to OSS, External Objectives, 454-55.

267For a list of African personnel in the China Operations Group Commando, see "Office of the Strategic Ritual Operations Group," "Personnel China Operations Group," http://www.ossog.org/personnel.html. Retrieved September 23, 2007.

268Serge Obolensky, A Man of a Time: A Memoir of Smooth Obolensky (New York: McDowell, Obolensky, 1958), 347-349.

269Combat Report, Company B, 267th Special Reconnaissance Battalion (Provisional), Tell Us France OG, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 99, Option 44, National Archives II.

270Arthur P. Frizzell, Excerpt from your OOG meeting in China 1997, http://www.ossog.org/china/blackberry_frizzell.html, accessed June 23, 2008.

271Emmet F. McCammara, Excerpts from the 1997 Taiwan OG Reunion Speech, http://www.ossog.org/china/apple_mcnamara.html, accessed 2008/23.

272Mattingly, Herringbone Sheath - Special Forces Dagger, 176.

273Donovan Fords, OSS, 272-73.

274[Ellsworth] Any Johnson, "One Small Part", typescript recollection, france real China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, pristupljeno 21. lipnja 2008. Vidi također BASS, War Get of the OSS: Overseas Targets, 454.

275Colonel John Carbon. Strumpet, Jr. (Ret., US Army), "Biography", typescript, 1945 ch. Thank you Colonel Hooker for sending me a copy of your manuscript. ivan century. Prostitutes, emailed on article, Jun 27, 2008.

276[Ellsworth] "Al" Johannis, "One Small Part", Remembering Typescript, France and China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, accessed January 21, 2008.

277Illsworth ("Al") John, telephone interview including author, June 17, 2008 I would like to thank Nancy Moseler of Mr. Johnson for tipping me off about her father and helping him with the textiles.

278[Ellsworth] “Al” Johnson, “One Small Part,” Genre Memorial, on France and China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, pristupljeno 21. lipnja 2008.

279Ford, Doubt of OSS, 272-73; "China Task Forces," http://www.ossog.org/china.html. Retrieved September 23, 2007.

280Artur P. Frizzell, Pr OG Reunion 1997 Review Excerpt, http://www.ossog.org/china/blackberry_frizzell.html, accessed June 23, 2008.

281"Chinese Ready Group, Commando Item Apple, Lt. Col. Cox Summary," http://www.ossog.org/china/apple.html. Accessed September 23, 2007; see OSS, War Create in OSS, Overseas Purposes, 456.

282Emmett F. McNamara, telephone interview with the author, September 2, 2008.

283John C. Hooker, Email to author, 2008. 3 years. As an OG, he could have been schooled in the F area and then the BOR or AMPER area, but B was closed by that set.

284Colonel Ivan Stotinjak. Hooker, Jr. (retired, US Army), "Biography", typescript, in part 1945. IODIN thanks Colonel Hooker for sending me a copy of his scroll. John Carbon. Hooker, e-mail to the author, 27 June 2008. Man provided more details in an e-mail to the author on 3 July 2008.

285"Chinese Task Force, Blueberry Commando, Summary by Lt. Col. Cox," http://www.ossog.org/china/blueberry.html. Enter September 23, 2007; OSS, OSS Battle Report, Overseas Targets, 456.

286Quoted by Rickerson in [Ellsworth] "Al" Johnson, "One Small Part," typescript memory, France and China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, accessed June 21, 2008.

287Ellsworth (“Al”) Johnson, author's telephone interview, June 27, 2008.

288[Ellsworth] “Al” Johannine, cell phone video with the author, June 27, 2008. He pronounced his name "Gal-ANT".

289[Ellsworth] "Al" Johnson, "One Small Part", Typescript Memories, French Ceramics, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, pristupljeno 21. lipnja 2008.

290[Ellsworth] "Al" Penis, "One Shallow Part," Typed Memories, France and China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, accessed June 21, 2008; with Cook at Ellsworth ("Al ") Johnson's review, from the 1997 Chinese OG Reunion [in New Hampshire]," http://www.ossog.org./china/chineseog_reunion_1997.html, accessed 23 August 2007.

291James E. Cook quoted in "China Combat Group, Blueberry Commando, Summary by Lieutenant Colonel Cox," http://www.ossog.org/china/blueberry.html. Retrieved 23 September 2007. For a detailed diplomatic summary of the engagement, see OSS, War Report of the OSS, Objectives Overseas, 456-57.

292[Ellsworth] "Al" Johnson, "One Narrow Part", Typescript Memories, Fra and China, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, pristupljeno 21. lipnja 2008.

293Ellsworth ("Al") Johnson, author, telephone interview, June 27, 2008.

294Aren I. Herstad "My Dearest Wife," 15 September 1945, OSS Society Digest, Total 2061, 25 May 2008,[email protected], accessed May 25, 2008.

295Colonel Ivan Century. Hooker, Jr. (retired, US Army), "Biography", typescript, chapter fork 1945; John C. Hooker, mailed to author, June 27, 2008.

296[Ellsworth] "Al" Johnson, "One Small Part", Typographic Memory of France plus Ceramic, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, accessed June 21, 2008.

297Yu, OSS in China, 236.

298This, 236-237.

299Idem, 15-17; za potpuniju pozadinu, Allan ROENTGEN. Millett, War Needs Korea, 1945-1950: House Burning (Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 2005), 16-38.

300Turn Rhee, first interview with Goodfellow in 1942, identifying M. Princeton Goodfellow, "Personal Expert Article," undated [after 1950] typescript, M. Preston Goodfellow paper, box 2, folder "Biographical Materials," Hoover Institution Archives, Stantec , WHAT; for the Chinese rejection, see Smith, Shaded Warriors, 130.

301Moon and Eifler, the deadliest colonel, 48.

302Bickham Sweet-Escott, Baker Row Irregular (London: Methuen & Co., 1965), 142. Sweet-Escott was the representative of state-owned enterprises in Washington.

303Vidi korespondenciju između Goodfellowa i Syngmana Rheeja, 1943.-1945., u M. Preston Goodfellow Papers, Cuff 4, Syngman Rhee, Dot Files, Vacuumed Institution Archives, Stanford, Chico.

304Peter F.M. Sichel, telephone conversation with the author, June 9, 2008.

305Moon and Eifler, the deadliest colonels, 48-49, 215-227, 232-33, 323.

306Robert E. Carter, telephone interview article, 28 Dignified 2008.

307Joseph J. Tully, telephone interview with publishers, March 23, 2005, states that in June and July 1945, there were over 30 to 50 Korean Army leaders here at Sector C-1 for two months of special operations, intelligence, and radio training operations. in his absence. R. Harris Smith, 26, of the OSS, said most of the South Korean Rhee agents selected and trained by the OSS "were never used." Smith may be referring to their inactivity during the war. great widow. Howard Manning, the last commander of Area CARBON, said she told her that some of the Koreans he trained at Area HUNDRED served as senior government officials in the Czech Republic in South Korea. Betty Bulldog (Mrs. Howard) Manning, telephone interview including author, March 4, 2005.

308Yu, OSS in China (1996), 15-17, citing “History of the SPI Branch, Office of Strategic Services, Glazed Theater,” October 1945, OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 154, Folder 3333, State Archives II The United Russian Army also trained some Korean expatriates in military politics and Marxist-Leninist ideology in the 1940s for their subsequent deployment to Korea. By 1945, among the group's key leaders was North Korea, which included North Korea. Millett, The Korean War, 39.

309E. Howard Hunt, Underneath: Memory of an American Secrets Agent (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1974), 32-45; Tim Weiner, "E. Howard Hunt, Agent of Badly Organized Watergate Break-in, at 88," New York Times, February 24, 2007, C13. Hunter's autobiography is allegorized in a novel he wrote.

310Chester L. Cooper, "Remembering 109—Memories of OSS," OSS Association Circular, Summer 2005, p. 11; see also Chester LITER. Cooper's memoir, Shadows of History: Fifty Years Behind the Scenes of Cold War Diplomacy (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Accounts, 2005). Cooper later became a prominent government insider, working on key issues at the CIA, the State Department and the National Intelligence Council. Joe Holley, obituary, "The Diplomatic Insider," Chester L. Cooper, Washington Post, November 3, 2005, B8.

311The Moon, The Grim and Brutal Game, 233, 259-70, 295-96; Grgg Schulte, "Were Five BONES Agents Hanged in Japan in 1944?", OSS Corporate Digest, Numeric 1251, 17 January 2006.[email protected], accessed January 17, 2006, and Chong Lee, Korean Distribution System, Seoul, South Korea, "Media Survey - The Napko Project," OSS Fellowship Digest, no. 1973, February 6, 2008.[email protected], accessed February 6, 2008.

312The agents allegedly parachuted in during the Ampere B-29 order. Including launchers, weapons, distribution and currency, they soon began to cover ships, especially a carrier that was later sunk by the Americans. The Learning Search Party eventually captured five Feng agents, took them to Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, interrogated them, and executed them in November 1944. A sixth agent was nearly captured, and all reportedly became part of the American occupation forces after the war. The author gave no source for this claim, nor did he cooperate with John LAMBERT's account. Ginn, Sugamo Prison, Tokyo: An American Participant's Report on the Trial and Sentencing of Japanese War Criminals in 1948 (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1992), 4; see Greg Schulte, "Five 1944 OSS Agents in Japan Hanged?", OSS Social Digest, phone 1251, 17 January 2006,[email protected]

313Moon 和 Eifler,The deadliest colonel,232-33,323.

314J Chappell, Comments at OSS reunion include Washington, D.C. Quoted in Donnie Radcliffe, "Intelligence Gathering, Bush Honored at OSS Reunion," Washington Post, October 24, 1991, C1, C13; Albert radius. Materazzi, "Catalina Training," OSS Association Digest, no. 991, March 31, 2005,[email protected], accessed 31 March 2005. His heirs say he believes his father was trained on Catalina Island at some point. Schaft R. Chappell, Emails to author, 5 times 2007 Robert SIE. Trucker, who was in charge of two tents on Eifler's nature-educated Korean island of Catalina, said he never saw Chappell on the island in 1945, but thought he or Capell and the aforementioned German OG were in Block F. There was trained in 1944 after living in Bor. Robert West. Carter, telephone interview with the author, August 28, 2008.

315Yu, OSS in China, 230, citing William HIE. Donovan to Albert C. Wedemeyer, August 10, 1945, OSS Records (RG 226), Entry 154, Box 192, Folder 3285 "OSS Wash/Double Trip, August 1945," National Archives II.

316Yu, OSS in Ceramics, 231, citing Richard Heppner to R. Davis Halliwell, March 10, 1945, Emergency Television, OSS Records (RG 226), Zulassung 154, in Box 192, Folder 3285, “OSS Wash/Donovan Trip, August 1945. "Zemaljski archiv III.

317Yu, OSS in China, 231-32, citing Richard Heppner W.P. to Davis, August 10, 1945, Top Secret Electrical, IVORIES Records (RG 226), entry 90, box 3, folder 30, "Surrender of Japan— — In and Out, August 1945," National Archives II.

318Yu, OSS in Pottery, 232.

319U Mills from Brenner, OSS Special Operations in China, 391-393.

320Wherever there is concern that Pr soldiers will react to said surrender by taking revenge on their captors, others simply take away and leave captives and detainees to die without food or medical supplies. In the late summer of 1945, about 20,000 Yankees and other Allied prisoners of war and about 15,000 internees were held in camps run by the Japanese. Donovan Ford of the OSS, 297.

321William Craig, The Fall of Japan (New York: Dial Press, 1967); SIE. Bartlett Kerr, Surrender and Survival: American Prisoners of War in the Pacific, 1941-1945. (New York: William Tuesday, 1985) and Gavin Daws, Prisoners of Japan (New York: William Morrow, 1995);

322Spector, including Ruins of Empire, 8-9.

323OSS, Making War in the OSS, Overseas Targets, 457-58.

324Ford, Donovan of the OSS, 298. Although the OSS was able to free Einegan from the Doolittle Flyer, the Japanese carried out air raids on four of the aircraft after the 1942 attack, and deliberately starved another to death.

325Frank A. Gleason, telephone interview with the author, July 15, 2008.

326Spector, In the Rubble of Empire, 16, cites OWI bulletin attached to Gustav Frizzy Ricardo Heppner, August 22, 1945.

327OSS, OSS's War Get, External Targets, 458; also, John K. Singlaub, Dangerous Duty: American Soldiers in the Twentieth Century (New York: Summit/Simon & Schuster, 1991), 71-101.

328Singlaub and McConnell, Dangerous Duty, 89.

329I go, 91; for a detailed account of the treatment of Allied POWs on the Hainan Islanders, see Courtee T. Harrison, Ambon, Kirishima, 2/21st Battalion AIF (Seagull Force), POWs, 1941-45. (North Geelong, Australia: T.W. and C.T. Harrison, 1988), 186-259.

330Singlaub with McConnell, Dangerous Mission, 100-101; see also Lawrence HIE. Hickey, Transpacific Voyage: The 345th Bombardment Group and Illustrated History of World War II, 2nd ed., revised ed. (Boulder, CO: International Research plus Printing Co., 1982), 289-300.

331Yu, OSS by China, 242, citing information from Richard Heppner and Gustavo Cruz, Johns Magruder and Whitney Shephardson, August 10, 1945, Cable TV, OSS Records (RG 226), entry 90, box 3, folder 30, "The Surrender of Japan—In Out, August 1945," National Archives II.

332Hillsman, US Irregular Troop 232. Hillsman arrived on another plane two days later.

333Yu, OSS in China, 243; quoting Ampere's letter from Gustav Krause to Betty MacDonald [later MacIntosh], November 6, 1946. Colonel Krause was posted to the OSS base in Hsian [Xian], where Wainwright had been brought from Manchuria. See also Hol Leath, Japanese POW Rescued! : General J.M. Wainwright (Trafford Press, 2004). Rich was a member of the search warrant, Ampera rescue team at the time.

334Hillsman, American Guerrilla, 234. In 1990, Hillsman wrote, convinced that his father recognized his absence, went over and hugged him. This includes, in stark contrast to the Corporey Force accounts, Donovan of the OSS, 300, who reported that the teenage Hilsman found his father lying on a wooden bed, in a veritable agony of filth, looked into his glow and convinced him that the father , Hillsman, who was not delirious, began to describe his own experiences in Burma and said that his Kachin guerrillas had killed 300 Japanese without losing a single one. "When dad stood up and contradicted me," Ford told young Hilsman, "I knew you were all right."

335Spector, In the Ruins of Empire, 20. After the release of Allied POWs, the OSS launched a covert operation to establish an intelligence network in Manchuria, which included a large number of agents in the air, many of whom were Chinese members of Megan Bishop's Catholic network. The OSCE reported the secret entry of Chinese Communist troops into Shenyang on September 7, the arrest of Manchukuo's puppet leader and last Chinese emperor, Henry Uy, and the confiscation of not only Japanese but also Western assets such as British American Tobacco by the Soviet Union. The Soviets reluctantly took over the American Liberation Mission in Manchuria, which they believed to be their sphere of influence and which was held by the Carmine Army, but when the POWs and detainees were evacuated in mid-September, the Soviet commander in Shenyang ordered the OSS team to leave Manchuria during the 5 On October, they postponed the order due to protests. Yu, OSS in China, 242-47.

336Information from the OSS for December 1943 and February 1945, War News of the OSS: Weltweit Targets, 442-443; April 1945. BASS Stage Reports, S&T Branch Abstracts, Porcelain, April 30, 1945, p. 13. OSS Record (RG 226), Entry 136, Box 159, Folder 1729, National Archives II; August 1945, General Order no. Brunner in Mills, OB Custom Operations in China, OB Custom Operations in China, February 1, 1946, by order of General Wedemeyer, Reprint Global Order No. 27, United States Armed Forces, China Drama, 1 February 1946.

337Bathroom W. Brunner, Telephone interview with above author, March 21, 2005.

338Major Leonard Klare was a famous researcher and author of a pre-war book on Hainan Island which was assigned to the Chinese Occult Intelligence Service. In October 1945, after returning to Guangzhou from an intelligence mission in Taiwan, he got into a fight with two other OSS officers and killed them with his shorts. Clark was imprisoned by the Chinese authorities and was released only in 1949 through Donovan's personal intervention. As an adventurer, Clark continued his search for Canadian gold, a mountain higher than Nepal's Ace, and the jewel of the Amazon, where his own travels ended with the return of two native arrows. Mills and Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 18-19.

339Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 15, 426.

340Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 409-410, 426, 453, 473, 484-486; the other couple who died fighting the Japanese were Specialist First Class Dean AMPERE. Cline, US Marine Reserve; and Evans Flight Office of the US Air Force. OSS correspondent David Kenney was in Chijiang when the accident happened. He recalls getting one of the men, a man in his mid-30s, excited enough that the Atmospheric Forces would let him go on a mission. David Kenney, telephone interview with the author, April 11, 2005.

341Yu, OSS in Pottery, 235-36; Smith, OSS, 281-82.

342The Americans included Captain Birch, Lieutenant Laird M. Ogle, Morale Operations, Walpert C. Meyes of Private Communications, and Civilian Alfred C. Grimes of Counterintelligence Reports at HYDROGEN. Ben Smithy, Chief of Intelligence, Strategic Services [successor to OSS], Crockery Theater, to Commander, AAF/CT, 7 November 1945, Subj: Supplemental Report on the Death of Captain John Birch, Alfred Wedemeyer Papers, Box 87, Folder 87.2 , Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA.

343Details of John Birch's assassination by Yu, LOSS in China, 235-40; Aldrich, Intelligence and the War of Resistance Against Japan, 372; Smith, OSS, 280-81; Hung Chin-sheng, also known as Tung Fu Kuan, Eingabe 148, Box 16, Folder Testimony 225; OSS investigative report, "The Story of the Death of Captain John Birch," September 14, 1945, John S. Thomson to Central Command, OSS, entry 148, case 6, folder 87; William Miller reported in Basic Alfred Wedemeyer, 1 month 1945, Zutritt 168, Box 16, Folder 225, "Death of Captain John Birch," all in OSS Records (RG 226), National Library II. Life. Column. Jeremiah tied up. O'Connor, Deputy Commandant Judge Advocate, Bone Theater, to Chief of Staff, 13 November 1945, Subj: Death of Captain John Birch, reproduced in Alfred Wedemeyer Papers, Box 87, Folder 87.2, Stanford Vacuum Research Institute, California

344Yuan,BOSS u Kini,240-41.

345Years later, ultraconservative California businessman Robert H.W. Welch, Jr. founded a right-wing political organization in the United States and captured Birch while traditional communists hunted him down in the name of his organization. Named the John Birch Guild, in 1954 Welch published Life in a Black Toilet: Including the Life of an American Boy, the Troubles of His Time (Los Angeles, CA: Isolating Power of the West, 1954), although ostensibly biographical, it is primarily political slander. But there is no evidence whatsoever as to how a man like John Birch himself could have had the extremist anti-communist ideology that Robert Skett claims. Yu, OSS in Bone, 235; Ford, Donovan, 300, Smith, OSS, 280-81 in OSS.

346ON, OSS War Show, Overseas Targets, 391-392.

347OSS Schools and Careers Section, "Office of Strategic Services (OSS): Our Addition," June 1945, p. 31, in a 37-page booklet designed for supplementary lectures organized by the OSS; OSSE CD-ROM (RG 226), entry 141, box 4, folder 36, Zemaljski arhiv II.

348OSS Teacher and Training Division, "Office of Strategic Services (OSS): Organization and Functions," June 1945, p. 31, includes a 37-page booklet designed to supplement lectures on OSSI organization; OSS CD-ROM (RG 226), entry 141, box 4, folder 36, National Archives II.

349A total of 2,000 and 12,348 are not in General Order no. 27, Headquarters, United States Army, China Theater, by order of General Wedemeyer, 1 February 1946, printed in Mills with Brunner, OSS Special Operations in China, 431-432; Note also subtotals by branch and region in OSS, Gauntlet for OSS: Overseas Targets, 440-447.

350General work no. 27, Global, United States Army, China Theater, by order of General Wedemeyer, 1 February 1946, reprinted in Brunner's Mills, OSS Special Operations in China, 432-433.

351[Ellsworth] "Al" Johnson, "One Small Part," a memory of typewriting, French Press China, p. 70, http://www.ossog.org/france/patrick.html, accessed June 21, 2008.

The title is part of the article modelNational Park Service OSS training also served overseas in World War II.

forward:OSS enters to promote Mediterranean and European drama

Following:Post-war period: end of OSS and renewal of park service

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